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a form of nonviolent, anti-imperialist struggle, developed and introduced into the national liberation movement of India by M. K. Gandhi. Gandhi first employed satyagraha in the Union of South Africa in the struggle against the racial discrimination suffered by Indians in the country. Satyagraha received wide application in the national liberation movement of the Indian people against the British colonialists between 1918 and 1947. It included such measures as mass meetings, demonstrations, work stoppages, boycotts of British institutions and the colonial administration, and, as an extreme measure, refusal to pay taxes.