Gelb's A Theory of Writing, in which the term "grammatology" ("a new science of writing") was coined, Derrida sets up a "general grammatology" in place of Saussurean
semiology, too closely modeled after the linguistic sign to provide a theory of writing; Harris, also critical of Saussurean
principles, opts for an integrational semiology that is more consequent in taking into consideration the contextual features of communication than the fixed-code models of structural semiologies and that also provides the general framework for his theory of writing - a theory that lies at a critical juncture for all reflection on the sign.
Holland explains that individual experiences and codes generate different readings, and, in place of Saussurean
linguistics, he recommends a 'feedback' model: the reader tests hypotheses against the text, and the text either substantiates or refutes them.
The bipolar nature of linguistic units S THIS TALL TREE p this tall tree Generally, two approaches to the sign can be distinguished: the Saussurean
dyadic conception and the Peircean triadic model of the sign.
To illustrate his point, Lacan very convincingly rebuts Saussurean
notion of signification by replacing his instance of the picture of a tree and its signified, which in Lacan's eyes is not more than a part and parcel of the process of nomenclature, by the two bathroom doors which in all the ways are same but viewed differently because of the signifiers attached to them, they are perceived as different altogether from each other as the distinction is intrinsic in the signifiers "Ladies" and "Gentlemen" which each door bears respectively.
We can also see the marks in plane of content (Saussurean
signified), where we saw the emotional-volitional tone of the narrator differing from the tone of the character (Excerpt 1 and 3), as well as the tones of the characters differentiating themselves (Excerpts 2, 4 and 5).
For Saussure, the sound-image and its associated concept are contiguous, inextricably united in our minds, but their union is totally arbitrary, he reminds us, in that the signifier "has no natural connection with the signified." It should be noted, however, that the arbitrary relationship between the signifier and the signified, and what these terms mean in a Saussurean
context, has been too frequently misrepresented by contemporary critical theory, to the extent that this point is often misunderstood.
In this case, the cultural convention confers, in the Peircean sense, a symbolic character (of proper signs, according to the Saussurean
definition of semiosis) to symptoms/indices (which are unintentional manifestations).
This reproduces a central function of representation, and may be thought of as a trope for the Saussurean
understanding of how language itself operates.
at the Saussurean
level of signification, any signifier leads inexorably
tradition underlies the structural linguistics and defines a two dimensional sign as a relationship between a sound image, signifier, and a concept, signified.
(Post-)structuralists often use Saussurean
linguistics to argue that meanings arise negatively from the relations of difference within the system of signs that make up a language.
Taking his bearings from a resolutely Derridean problematic, Bradley draws a parallel between Freud's 'differential model of the psyche' and the Saussurean
linguistic model and differential nature of the sign (p45).