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(săks-vī`mär), Ger. Sachsen-Weimar, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. The area passed in the division of 1485 to the Ernestine branch of the WettinWettin
, German dynasty, which ruled in Saxony, Thuringia, Poland, Great Britain, Belgium, and Bulgaria. It takes its name from a castle on the Saale near Halle. The family gained prominence in the 10th cent.
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 dynasty and remained with that branch after the redivision of the Wettin lands in 1547, when Elector John Frederick IJohn Frederick I,
1503–54, elector (1532–47) and duke (1547–54) of Saxony; last elector of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin. Like his father, John the Steadfast, whom he succeeded, John Frederick was a devout Lutheran.
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 of Saxony was captured by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the battle of Mühlberg. John Frederick's heirs divided the Ernestine lands into the duchies of Weimar, Gotha, Coburg, Eisenach, and Altenburg. Duke John of Weimar, who died in 1605, left several sons; one of them was the celebrated Protestant general, Bernhard of Saxe-WeimarBernhard of Saxe-Weimar
, 1604–39, Protestant general in the Thirty Years War, duke of Weimar. Under Ernst von Mansfeld and the margrave of Baden, Bernhard fought against the imperial forces in defense (1622) of the Palatinate.
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, who served in the Thirty Years War.

The cadet lines of Coburg, Gotha, and Eisenach having failed by 1640, their lands passed to the sons of Duke John. Ernest the Pious, who had Gotha and Coburg, also inherited Altenburg in 1672; his possessions were again divided among his seven sons (see Saxe-GothaSaxe-Gotha
, Ger. Sachsen-Gotha, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. A possession of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin, it passed in the 16th cent. to the dukes of Saxe-Weimar.
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; Saxe-CoburgSaxe-Coburg
, Ger. Sachsen-Coburg, former duchy, central Germany. A possession of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin, it was given by Ernest the Pious (d. 1675) of Saxe-Gotha to his son Albert.
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; Saxe-MeiningenSaxe-Meiningen
, Ger. Sachsen-Meiningen, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. The capital was Meiningen. A possession of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin, it became a separate duchy in 1681 under Bernard, third son of Ernest the Pious of Saxe-Gotha.
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; see also Saxe-AltenburgSaxe-Altenburg
, Ger. Sachsen-Altenburg, former duchy, Thuringia, central Germany. Altenburg was the capital. Created a separate duchy in 1603, it was ruled by an Ernestine line of the house of Wettin.
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). An elder brother of Ernest the Pious, William, received Weimar and Eisenach; those duchies, however, were again separated under his heirs until the failure of the Eisenach line in 1741, when its territory (including Jena) reverted to Duke Ernest Augustus I of Saxe-Weimar.

Small as it was, the duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, which resulted from the reunion in 1741, was the most important of the Thuringian principalities. It gained its greatest prosperity and cultural importance under Duke Charles AugustusCharles Augustus,
1757–1828, duke and, after 1815, grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach; friend and patron of Goethe, Schiller, and Herder. Though his duchy was small, he was important in German politics.
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, the patron and friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who made WeimarWeimar
, city (1994 pop. 58,807), E Thuringia, central Germany, on the Ilm River. It is an industrial, transportation, and cultural center. Manufactures include agricultural machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and furniture. Known in the 10th cent.
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, the ducal capital, an intellectual center of Europe. Charles Augustus sided against Napoleon I in the War of the Third Coalition, but was forced in 1806 to join the Confederation of the Rhine. The Congress of Vienna raised him (1815) to the rank of grand duke. Grand Duke Charles Alexander sided (1866) with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. His grandson, William Ernest, abdicated in 1918, and in 1920 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was incorporated into Thuringia.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The epicenter of d'Annunzianism--a relic of the Fascist epoch, yet akin to Goethe's shrine in Saxe-Weimar, Tolstoy's Yasnaya Polyana, or Wagner's Bayreuth--is but a demagogue's shout away from Salo, where, in 1943, Mussolini established the Italian Social Republic, only to be hanged upside down from the roof of an Esso gas station for his trouble.
Since then the now seven-year-old has had many different owners - i ncluding Marwan Koukash and Germany's Prince of Saxe-Weimar - a nd also a different trainer, but having returned to Osborne from Ed Walker towards the end of last year he has flourished, with yesterday's win representing his fourth of the year.
In this context it is particularly interesting to note that the general direction of Romanov marriages did not change at all: in 1804, Alexander's sister, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, was married to the heir to the duchy of Saxe-Weimar, a miniscule territory in the heart of Germany and the site of the famous battles of Jena and Auerstadt only two years later.
Local associations of Saxe-Weimar's State Association of the League sponsored frequent public meetings and family evenings.
'There is nothing as unique in English architecture as the development of the house,' Muthesius wrote to his patron Grand Duke Carl Alexander of Saxe-Weimar, '...
He subsequently fought in the Swedish army commanded by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (1634), led German units in the pay of the French king, Louis XIII (1635-39), again served the princes of Orange (1639-50), and then fought under Louis XIV (1650-1659).
Written for soprano with harpsichord accompaniment, the uncovered aria is a setting for a 12-verse poem that began with the words "Everything with God and nothing without him." This is the credo of Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxe-Weimar. Bach was the duke's court organist.
Daniel Wilson documents how Goethe was personally opposed to the Judenordnung of 1823, legislation granting a measure of Jewish emancipation in the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, especially its provision permitting marriages between Christians and Jews.
Most of the photographic reproductions were made from an original imprint held by the Harvard University Library, save for the four missing pages and a handwritten inscription to the Protestant hero of the Thirty Years' War, Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604-1639), made from a copy held by the British Library.
Here, Goethe's role at the small German court of Saxe-Weimar is often cited as indicative of the new political authority ascribed to culture.(6) Despite being employed by a prince, Goethe enjoyed more artistic independence than a traditional court poet could have dreamed imaginable.
Because of his growing fame in literary circles he was summoned by Charles Augustus (heir apparent to the duchy of Saxe-Weimar) to live in Weimar in 1775, where his appointments included the post of supervisor of mining in 1777.