a popular antifeudal, anti-Mongol movement which arose in Mazanderan and Gilan (Iran) in the 14th century. The Sayyid movement was similar to the Serba-dar movement. It was led by Sheikh Sayyid Qavam al-Din Mar-ashi, head of the Hasan order, a dervish order of the Sufi sect; Marashi settled in Mazanderan after taking part in the Serba-dar movement in Khorasan.
In 1360 a Sayyid state was formed. It was similar to the Ser-badar states and was ruled by Sheikh Marashi and his descendants. In 1392 it was conquered by Tamerlane. In 1406, as a result of a popular uprising, the state was restored. It gradually became a typical feudal state and existed to the end of the 16th century.
An analogous Sayyid state was formed in 1370 in eastern Gilan, with its capital in Lahijan, as a result of a popular movement that was led by Sheikh Ala Kiya and supported by Sheikh Marashi. This state existed until 1592. Both Sayyid states were liquidated by the Safavids.
REFERENCESBartol’d, V. V. Mesto prikaspiiskikh oblastei v istorii musul’manskogo mira. Baku, 1925. Pages 82–84.
Petrushevskii, I. P. Zemledelie i agrarnye otnosheniia v Irane XIII-XIV vv. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960. Pages 467–71.
I. P. PETRUSHEVSKII