This also happens in the American spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus
spp.), whose emergence from the deep burrow where they estivate is stimulated by their seasonal rhythm of reproduction and by the vibrations and the sounds of thunder and large raindrops falling on the ground.
Developmental polymorphism in the tadpoles of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus
There are actually three ponds: the northern pond (Dave's Pond) is about 1/4 mile north of the road, the middle pond (Scaphiopus
Pond) is at the edge of the road to the north, and the third pond (Areolatus Pond) is at the edge of the road to the south.
Environmental correlates of emergence in Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus
Only two species were recorded, Great Plains toad, Bufo cognatus Say, and Couch's spade foot, Scaphiopus
couchii Baird; these species were not present in 2005.
These sites have produced approximately 4000 amphibian captures of six different species: one salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and five frogs (Rana sylvatica, Rana pipiens, Bufo cognatus, Pseudacris maculata, and Scaphiopus
berlandieri, and Scaphiopus
couchi), and four turtle species (Kinosternon flavescens, K.
opacum (marbled salamander) Northerly Siren intermedia (lesser siren) Northerly Hyla cinerea (green tree frog) Northerly Scaphiopus
holbrookii (eastern spadefoot) Northerly Apalone spinifera pallida (pallid spiny softshell) * Northerly Pseudemys concinna (river cooter) ** Northerly Terrapene carolina (eastern box turtle) Northerly Scincella lateralis (ground skink) Northerly Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie kingsnake) Northerly L.
This species is widely distributed in North America and has been reported from six genera of anurans, Acris, Bufo, Hyla, Pseudacris, Rana, Scaphiopus
; three of Caudata, Desmognathus, Eurycea, Plethodon, seven genera of lizards, Anolis, Eumeces, Elgaria, Gerrhonotus, Heloderma, Sceloporus, Scincella; and one of tortoises, Terrapene (Baker 1987; Goldberg and Bursey 1991).
Groups of three larvae from all three species (Experiment 1) or isolated larvae from two species (Experiment 2) in the genus Scaphiopus
were reared at three food levels.
Genetic variation for larval anuran (Scaphiopus
couchii) development time in an uncertain environment Evolution 42:763-773.
Experimental Control fence (EF) fence Taxon With Without When When EF wings wings EF did not had have wings wings Amphibians Acris blanchardi 6 5 1 0 Ambystoma opacum 5 0 0 5 Ambystoma texanum 0 0 1 0 Anaxyrus americanus 7 3 12 4 charlesmithi Anaxyrus woodhousii 1 1 0 0 Gastrophryne 113 96 3 2 carolinensis Hyla cinerea 0 0 0 1 Hyla versicolor 1 0 0 4 Lithobates 1 0 0 0 areolatus areolatus Lithobates 39 6 0 0 damitans Lithobates 90 56 25 15 palustris Lithobates 146 69 128 75 sphenocephalus utricularius Notophthalmus 83 73 2 4 viridescens louisianensis Pseudacris 2 2 2 0 streckeri Scaphiopus
115 75 48 32 hurterii Total no.