scarab beetle


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scarab beetle

or

scarab,

name for members of a large family of heavy-bodied, oval beetlesbeetle,
common name for insects of the order Coleoptera, which, with more than 300,000 described species, is the largest of the insect orders. Beetles have chewing mouthparts and well-developed antennae.
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 (the Scarabaeidae), with about 30,000 species distributed throughout most of the world and over 1,200 in North America. North American scarab beetles range in length from less than 1-2 in. to more than 2 in. (5–50 mm); members of some tropical species grow several inches long. Many scarab beetles are brightly colored and many are iridescent.

A large group of scarab beetles are scavengers, feeding on decaying vegetation or on the dung of grazing animals. Most of these lay their eggs in underground chambers supplied with dung, where the larvae feed and pupate, emerging as adults. These scarabs, called dung beetles, play an extremely important role in the rapid recycling of organic matter and the disposal of disease-breeding wastes. Australia, which has few native dung beetle species, has imported African species to help dispose of cattle dung.

Some of the dung beetles, known as tumblebugs, form balls of dung that they roll about with their hind legs, sometimes for long distances and sometimes working in pairs. Eventually they bury the ball and lay eggs in it. One such ball-roller is the sacred scarab (Scarabaeus sacer), a black scarab beetle of the Mediterranean region. In ancient Egypt the periodic appearance of this beetle in great numbers on the surface of the Nile mud led men to associate the sacred scarab with resurrection and immortality. It was believed that all scarabs were males capable of reproducing their kind. Their ball-rolling activities were associated with the diurnal movement of the sun.

Other species of scarab beetles feed on living plants. Members of these groups include such major crop and garden pests as the Japanese beetleJapanese beetle,
common name for a destructive beetle, Popillia japonica, of the scarab beetle family. Accidentally imported to the United States from Japan, it was first discovered in New Jersey in 1916 and is now widespread in the northeastern states, where it is a
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, the rose chafer, and the June beetleJune beetle
or May beetle,
a blackish or mahogany-colored beetle of the scarab beetle family, widely distributed in North America and especially abundant in the NE United States and the adjacent parts of Canada.
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 (also called June bug and May beetle). Cockchafers are Old World species similar to June beetles. Adult plant-eating scarab beetles attack leaves, flowers, and fruits, while the larvae, which develop from eggs laid in the ground, attack roots.

The largest scarab beetles in North America are the plant-eating Hercules beetles and their close relatives, the rhinoceros beetles and elephant beetles. In most species of this group the males are prominently horned. The Hercules beetles of the S United States may grow 2 1-2 in. (6.4 cm) long; their tropical relatives may attain a length of 6 in. (15 cm) including the horns. Despite their ferocious appearance these beetles are harmless to people.

The term scarab is also applied to representations of scarab beetles made of stone, metal, or other materials. Finely carved scarabs were used as seals in ancient Egypt; inscribed scarabs were issued to commemorate important events or buried with mummies. Roman soldiers wore scarab rings as military symbols.

Scarab beetles are classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae.

References in periodicals archive ?
L-leucine methyl ester: the female-produced sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga lanceolata.
In addition, he has marked "Khepri was the morning sun-god, conceived as a scarab beetle.
Anethol, the 4th odorant, showed clear olfactory neural activation and attraction in some scarab beetles (Hansson et al.
I have my eye on an ornate handbag with scarab beetle clasp (pounds 40) and a sequin shirt dress (pounds 70).
Outside is a pastel blue security booth and garage doors adorned with a giant scarab beetle.
eucharitid wasps (5 species), scarab beetle (Martineziana dutertrei), strepsipteran (Caenocholax fenyesi), parasitic ant (Solenopsis daguerrei), densovirus (Solenopsis invicta densovirus, SiDNV), and RNA viruses (3 viruses) (Wojcik et al.
Sauer (1955) described such formations as Coprinisphaera ecuadoriensis, relating them to brood nests of an unknown scarab beetle (Sauer 1955, 1956; see also Estrada, 1941).
In third place was Scott Hyland who suggested an MP4 player in the shape of a scarab beetle.
In which ancient civilisation was the scarab beetle regarded as sacred?
Craft-lovers can learn how to make a Shabti servant from clay, scarab beetle badges from felt or a papyrus bookmark to take home as a reminder of the day.
This combination of feeding areas and oviposition areas as encounter sites has been noted in a number of insect species including, for example, the palm scarab beetle Oryctes rhinoceros, the males of which regularly approach virgin females both in the crowns of trees where they feed, and also at the trunks where they lay eggs (Zelazny, 1975).