The angular dependence of the

scattering cross-section is usually described in terms of the cosine of the scattering angle and expanded in Legendre polynomials.

Scattering of delocalized WL carriers induces transitions of the trapped carrier between the QD states leading to relaxation in the system the rate of which is obtained from the

scattering cross-section as

Two different

scattering cross-sections are used in the MC-simulation because the optimum choice of the

scattering cross-section depends on the PE energy and the atomic number of the specimen materials.

The overall visibility of the object is quantified by the total

scattering cross-section as [137]:

Similarly, having applied terminology used in quantum mechanics,

scattering cross-section S for the porous medium has the following form:

where [A.sub.g] is the extra attenuation due to gaseous absorption and [[sigma].sub.bi] is the

scattering cross-section. The parameter Cv is the common volume which denotes the region formed by the intersection of the cones of the radiation patterns of the two antennas cut at the -18 dB level which is evaluated from the following integral [8]:

in which [[sigma].sub.SD] is the

scattering cross-section from source electrode to drain electrode, and [??] is Planck constant; [[rho].sub.D] ([E.sub.F]) is the density of electronic state of Fermi level.

In other words, it is useful to compare "

scattering cross-section of the scatterer" which is one particular measure of the ability of a substance to cause backscattering.

142[D.sub.f][k.sub.n]) [[zeta].sub.n] Bessel function parameter of the nth order [[zeta.sup.2.sub.n] = [k.sup.2.sub.n] + [[mu].sub.a] ([lambda])/[D.sub.f] [[mu.sub.t]([lambda]) total (absorption + scattering) macroscopic cross-section [[mu].sub.t]([lambda]) = [[mu] .sub.s]([lambda])+ [[mu].sub.a]([lambda]) [[mu].sub.st]([lambda]) reduced macroscopic

scattering cross-section [[mu].sub.st]([lambda]) = (1 - <[mu]>) [[mu] .sub.s]([lambda]) <[mu>] asymmetry parameter defined as the average cosine of the scattering angle.

These results show that the detector system is an accurate device for measuring parameters like particle size, concentration, and

scattering cross-section [C.sub.ext].

In the geometric domain, the

scattering cross-section increased with the square of the frequency, in contrast to the frequency to the fourth power in the Rayleigh domain.

For a metal NP with complex permittivity [[epsilon].sub.p] embedded in a homogenous medium with permittivity [[epsilon].sub.m], depending on the particle volume V and the incident wavelength [lambda], the effective

scattering cross-section can be much larger than the physical cross-section of the particle.