Andrew V Schally

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Schally, Andrew V.,

1926–, American endocrinologist, b. Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), as Andrzej Viktor Schally, grad. McGill Univ. (Ph.D., 1957). He spent most of his career at Tulane Univ. School of Medicine and the Veterans Administration Hospital in New Orleans, La. Schally shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Roger GuilleminGuillemin, Roger Charles Louis
, 1924–, French-American physiologist, b. Dijon, France. Educated in France, he fought for the resistance during World War II. He taught primarily at Baylor Univ.
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 and Rosalyn YalowYalow, Rosalyn Sussman,
1921–2011, American medical physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Univ. of Illinois, 1945. As a researcher at the Bronx Veterans Administration Hospital (from 1947), Yalow and colleague Solomon A.
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. He is credited with discovering three hormones produced by the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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: thyrotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Schally's discoveries led to the recognition that the hypothalamus controls the pituitary glandpituitary gland,
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).
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 and opened the door to research in contraception, diabetes, and growth and mental disorders.
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Schally, Andrew V. (Victor)

(1926–  ) endocrinologist; born in Wilno, Poland. He fled to Romania from Poland at the German invasion of 1939 and emigrated to Great Britain via Italy and France. He was a protein chemist in England (1949–52) and an endocrinologist in Canada (1952–57) before coming to the U.S.A. to join Baylor University (1957–62). He then relocated to Tulane and the Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans (1962). He spent his career isolating and determining the chemical structures of hypothalamic hormones that regulate pituitary output of hormones affecting the thyroid, adrenals, gonads, and somatic growth. For these contributions, he shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology with collaborator Roger Guellemin and immunologist Rosalyn Yalow.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.