Schinkel, Karl Friedrich

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich

(kärl frē`drĭkh shĭng`kəl), 1781–1841, German architect and painter. A member of the Berlin Academy, he became a professor in 1820. He also worked in lithography, etching, and illustration, but he attained real distinction as the official state architect of Prussia. Schinkel designed primarily in the neoclassical style, and his buildings have been consistently admired by later generations of architects for their rational organization of parts and geometrical clarity. Among the public buildings, castles, and country residences he designed are the Royal Guard House (1816–18), Royal Theater (1818–21), and Altes Museum (1822–30) in Berlin, and the Church of St. Nicholas (1829–37) and the Casino (1823) in Potsdam.

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich

(1781–1841)
German architect of original Neoclassical buildings. His work was stylistically eclectic, but lyrical and logical. Schinkel’s funeral in 1841 was a national event, and his grave is marked by a stele of his own design. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (reigned 1840–1861) decreed that all of Schinkel’s work be purchased by the state.

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich

 

Born Mar. 13, 1781, in Neuruppin, Brandenburg; died Oct. 9, 1841, in Berlin. German architect, painter, and graphic artist.

Schinkel studied at the Berlin Academy of Architecture under F. Gilly from 1798 to 1800. He worked mainly in Berlin. He initially concentrated on painting and the graphic arts, producing landscapes, panoramas, works of stage design, drawings, and lithographs in the romantic style.

The most outstanding representative of late classicism in 19th-century German architecture, Schinkel strove for laconically monumental composition. His works include the Neue Wache (now a monument to the victims of fascism and militarism), the Drama Theater, and the Altes Museum, all in Berlin. He also revealed romantic tendencies in his pseudo-Gothic buildings, including a chapel in Petergof (1831–33). In the last years of his life, renouncing the forms of classicism and the Gothic, he anticipated the principles of rationalism, for example, in the Academy of Architecture in Berlin (1831–35). He also was an architectural theorist.

WORKS

Grundlage der praktischen Baukunst, 4th ed., vols. 1–4. Berlin [1850].
Briefe, Tagebücher, Gedanken. Berlin [1922].

REFERENCES

Rave, P. O. Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Berlin [1948].
Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Lebenswerk, vols. 1–7, 9–13. Berlin-Munich, 1939–69. (Publication in progress.)
Pundt, H. G. Schinkel’s Berlin. Cambridge, Mass., 1972.
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