Schmalkaldic League


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Schmalkaldic League

(shmälkäl`dĭk), alliance formed in 1531 at Schmalkalden by Protestant princes and delegates of free cities. It was created in response to the threat (1530) by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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 to stamp out Lutheranism. Led by Philip of HessePhilip of Hesse
, 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' War.
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 and John Frederick IJohn Frederick I,
1503–54, elector (1532–47) and duke (1547–54) of Saxony; last elector of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin. Like his father, John the Steadfast, whom he succeeded, John Frederick was a devout Lutheran.
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 of Saxony, the league grew rapidly. Under its protection the Reformation spread through most of Germany. In an effort to crush the independence of the states of the empire and to restore unity to the Roman Catholic Church, Charles initiated the so-called Schmalkaldic War against the league. At the battle of Mühlberg (1547), the league was defeated.

Schmalkaldic League

 

a political alliance of German Protestants formed in response to Emperor Charles V’s refusal to acknowledge the Augsburg Confession. The league was established on Feb. 27, 1531, in the Thuringian city of Schmalkalden. Its members included such Lutheran princes as elector John Frederick of Saxony, Landgrave Philip of Hesse, and, later, Ulrich of Württemberg and Duke Maurice of Saxony, as well as such cities as Magdeburg, Bremen, Strasbourg, and Ulm. In the Schmalkaldic War (1546–48) the league was defeated by Charles V and disbanded.

References in periodicals archive ?
The solution, agreed to both by the Habsburgs and the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, was to substitute for an Imperial Diet an assemblage of ten of the twelve Imperial districts (excluding Austria and the Netherlands), meeting at Worms in April 1535 to finance the ongoing siege of Munster.
To scholars of the politics of the Habsburg-Valois duel or the intricacies of the English Reformation, the diplomatic relations between Henry VIII and the Schmalkaldic League can seem a sideshow.
Whilst the Emperor Charles V was distracted by the hostility of the Farnese Pope Paul III and by his foreign wars, particularly with the Turks, who had seized Buda in Hungary in 1541, the Schmalkaldic League became more aggressive than defensive.
The politics of the Swabian League, Three Cities' League, and Schmalkaldic League established a pattern of communication and cooperation between the urban centers, and these networks carried over into the religious changes brought by the Protestant Reformation.
She draws our attention to the fascinating story of a man who was employed variously by Cardinal Du Bellay, the Schmalkaldic League, and the city of Strasbourg, and who was much influenced by that city's religious and political liminality.
Having already enlisted the aid of the German warlords to protect him from the Church and the Emperor, Luther could not prevent his movement becoming hijacked by these men of power, who banded together in 1530 to form the Schmalkaldic League.
In 1550, following the collapse of the Schmalkaldic League and the establishment of the Augsburg Interim by Charles V, Lasco was removed from his position as superintendent.
But the Lutheran theologians would not budge, and since membership in the Schmalkaldic League, which Henry wanted, depended on adherence to the Augsburg Confession, a full "reconciliation" became more and more unlikely.
Philip I the Magnanimous was one or the political leaders of the Lutheran Reformation and after 1530 one of the leaders of the Schmalkaldic League of Protestant princes.
Ocker's work can also be grouped with a number of other recent studies on the Schmalkaldic League and War.
Charles took the initiative in July 1546 by outlawing two of the leading members of the Schmalkaldic League of German Protestant princes, Philip of Hesse (whose bigamous marriage had already caused embarrassment to Luther) and the Elector of Saxony, John Frederick, and placing them under the Ban of the Empire.
In particularly they have played down his attempt to join with the Schmalkaldic League in defense of Protestantism during the later 1530s and earlier 1540s.