Schofield, John McAllister

Schofield, John McAllister

(skō`fēld), 1831–1906, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Gerry, N.Y. He taught at West Point (1855–60) and on the outbreak of the Civil War became chief of staff to Nathaniel Lyon in Missouri. He was brigadier general commanding Missouri troops (Nov., 1861–Apr., 1863) and commander of the Dept. of the Missouri (May, 1863–Jan., 1864). In Feb., 1864, he was given command of the Army of the Ohio, which he led in the Atlanta campaignAtlanta campaign,
May–Sept., 1864, of the U.S. Civil War. In the spring of 1864, Gen. W. T. Sherman concentrated the Union armies of G. H. Thomas, J. B. McPherson, and J. M. Schofield around Chattanooga.
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. He opposed John B. HoodHood, John Bell,
1831–79, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Owingsville, Ky. He resigned from the army (Apr., 1861) and entered the Confederate service 1862. He fought in the Peninsular campaign and at the second battle of Bull Run (Aug.
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 in Tennessee (Oct.–Dec., 1864), fighting at Franklin and Nashville. Schofield was Secretary of War under Andrew Johnson (1868–69) and held various commands until 1888, when he became commander of the U.S. army. He was appointed lieutenant general shortly before he retired in 1895.

Bibliography

See his Forty-six Years in the Army (1897); study by J. L. McDonough (1972).

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Schofield, John McAllister

(1831–1906) soldier; born in Gerry, N.Y. Son of a Baptist clergyman, he graduated from West Point (1853), served in Florida, taught at West Point, and was on leave of absence to teach at Washington University (St. Louis) when the Civil War began. He was assigned to duty in Missouri and held a series of administrative posts during the first years of the war. He commanded the Twenty-third Corps of the Army of the Ohio in the Atlanta campaign (1864) and at the battles of Franklin and Nashville (1864); he also saw action in the final march through the Carolinas. He served as superintendent of West Point (1876–81), and ended his long military career as commanding general of the army (1888–95).
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.