Sclerification

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sclerification

 

the thickening and lignification of the walls of plant cells and the subsequent dying off of the protoplasts. Sclerification increases the solidity of the plant’s organs, as well as their resistance to disease agents. Parenchyma cells are most often subjected to sclerification and turned into sclereids; however, epidermal cells are often sclerified as well. The interfascicular parenchyma in palm and bamboo stems is especially susceptible to sclerification. In woody plants sclerification occurs in the outer layers of the bark, affecting the cells of the phloem and radial parenchyma.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The arch sclerite is connected to the inner surface of the zyoma by a single medial sclerification;
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Anatomical markers of taxonomic importance are the nature and size of macro- and micro-hairs, shape of bulliform cells, arrangement of vascular bundles and amount of sclerification present in the leaves, which may be used for resolving taxonomic problem of problematic genera within tribe Paniceae.
The size of epidermis cells, size and shape of outer cortical region, presence of sclerification in outer cortex and endodermal cell area also showed the significant diversity.
The cupule provides protection to the developing nut through its armature, sclerification, and tannins (Kaul, 1985; Kubitzki, 1993).
Unsclerified tissue within the vascular bundle (i.e., phloem and parenchyma) contributes to the estimate of sclerification, but because it was a small fraction of the sectional area of vascular bundles, its contribution was minor.
The size of epidermis cells size and shape of outer cortical region presence of sclerification in outer cortex sclerenchyma bundles in cortical region and presence of aerenchyma were quite significantly (Pless than 0.01) variable in these cultivars.
Cultivar Berehmi showed typical characteristics in the root anatomy with well developed sclerification in cortical region and highly enlarged phloem.
In her neotropical crickets monograph Desutter (1990) mentions that Neomorphini are restricted to South America and are defined by the following characteristics: 1) absence of stridulatory apparatus; 2) five internal (sometimes six) and five external dorsal spurs on hind tibia; 3) endophallic cavity dissymmetrical, irregularly-shaped; 4) ectophallic invagination sclerified, sclerification surpassing brim of endophallic cavity, dissymmetrical; 5) rami circular.