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an instrument for measuring the hardness of metals and various crystals. Most sclerometers fall into one of two categories. In the first type, designed by the German scientist A. Martens, the material tested is scratched with a diamond point under a load. The second type of instrument tests the resistance of a material to indentation. The hardness of the material is taken as either the load under which a scratch of a certain width is left or else the load under which an indentation of a given area is left on the material.