Sclerotium


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Related to Sclerotium: sclerotia, Phytophthora infestans, conidia

sclerotium

[sklə′rō·shəm]
(microbiology)
The hardened, resting or encysted condition of the plasmodium of Myxomycetes.
(mycology)
A hardened, resting mass of hyphae, usually black on the outside, from which fructifications may develop.

Sclerotium

 

in fungi, a dormant stage that occurs under unfavorable conditions. The sclerotium is a round or elongate body formed by the close intertwining of the hyphae of some ascomycetous, basidial, and imperfect fungi—for example, ergot, sclerotinia, Brazilian polyporous fungus, and monilia. The sclerotium usually ranges in size from a fraction of a millimeter to 2 cm. Some larger forms occur; for example, in the Brazilian polyporous fungus the sclerotium reaches 30 cm in diameter and 20 kg in weight. The cells of the outer part of the sclerotium are dark and thick-walled, whereas those of the interior are colorless and thin-walled.

The sclerotium contains little water (5–10 percent) but is rich in nutritive substances. Under favorable conditions the sclerotium buds and forms fruiting bodies in ascomycetous and basidial fungi or mycelia with conidia in imperfect fungi. The sclerotium may remain viable for several years. The ergot sclerotium contains several alkaloids, including ergotoxine, ergometrine, and ergotamine, which are used medicinally as parturifacients and antihemorrhagics (to treat uterine hermorrhages).

References in periodicals archive ?
Biocontrol potential of different genera of Actinobacteria against fungal plant Pathogens Genera Number of strains Number of strains inhibited MP inhibited SR Streptomyces (26 no's) 20 20 Nocardia (12 no's) 7 7 Saccharoployspora (2 no's) 2 2 Micromonospora (1 no) 1 1 Genera Number of strains Number of strains inhibited RS inhibited FO Streptomyces (26 no's) 18 2 Nocardia (12 no's) 6 0 Saccharoployspora (2 no's) 1 0 Micromonospora (1 no) 1 0 * MP: Macrophomina phaseolina, SR: Sclerotium rolfsii, RS: Rhizoctonia solani, FO: Fusarium oxysporum Table 3.
Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.
After which, the number of sclerotium present in the plates were counted and recorded.
Pandey, "Maximization of production of oxalic acid from Sclerotium rolfsii, a mycoherbicidal agent against Parthenium," Annals of Plant Protection Science, vol.
No sclerotium was formed in the mixture of topsoil and fermented sawdust (S2) as well as in the mixture of OPFF and fermented sawdust (S3).
De las pruebas de antibiosis, 7 aislados detuvieron el crecimiento de hongos fitopatogenos: Sclerotium sp.
De los cormos y cormelos de plantas infectadas que presentaban sintomas de escaso desarrollo, clorosis, necrosis foliar y pudricion de las raices se aislaron los hongos Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn y Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
1996, "Two mannanases from Sclerotium rolfsii in total chlorine free bleaching of softwood kraft pulp," J.
I was particularly taken with the effects of several fungi, which thrive in persistently cold, wet weather and which produced a toxic sclerotium, ergotamine, in rye that, when milled, baked and eaten, produced the disease known as St.
An in vitro study into the effect of glyphosate on Sclerotium rolfsii.
Algunos hongos como el Macrophomina phaseolina y el Sclerotinia minor son poco sensibles a altas temperaturas, mientras otros como el Sclerotium rolfsii y el Phytophtora sp.