Scottish Gaelic


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Scottish Gaelic

 

the language of the Scots who inhabit the northern (mountainous) part of Scotland and the islands of the Hebrides. It belongs, along with Irish and Manx, to the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Scottish Gaelic is a descendant of the language of the Irish who began to migrate to Scotland in the fifth century A.D. It began to separate from Irish only in the 13th century. Records from the 11th to the 15th century do not differ linguistically from those of the Irish. One of the oldest records in Scottish Gaelic proper is the Book of the Dean of Lismore, which dates from the early 16th century. Modern Scottish Gaelic is split into two dialect areas—the eastern and the western. The written literary language, which took shape during the 18th and early 19th centuries, is extremely conservative; consequently, literary works in Scottish Gaelic are written in the dialects with a more or less standardized orthography. Scottish Gaelic differs from Irish Gaelic in phonetics, its simplification of the noun and verb systems, and the presence of Scandinavian lexical items. According to the 1961 census, Scottish Gaelic was spoken by approximately 80.000 people: however, only approximately 1,000 were monolingual Scottish Gaelic speakers.

REFERENCES

Stewart, A. Elements of Gaelic Grammar. 5th ed. Edinburgh. 1901.
Dwelly, E. The Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary, 5th ed. Glasgow, 1949.

A. A. KOROLEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The MacDiarmid MS Anthology (editor), Scottish Gaelic Texts Society, 1991
Chapter 5, 'Names and Places in Celtic Literature', focuses mainly on medieval Irish literature (though with a page on medieval Welsh texts), and also includes sections on 'Preoccupation with Places in Contemporary Scottish Gaelic Poetry' and Brian Friel's 1980 play Translations.
The 2001 Census saw the number of Scottish Gaelic speakers continue the decline that it has suffered since surveys began in 1891 .Towards the end of the 19th century, a quarter of a million people claimed to speak Scottish Gaelic.
Middle Irish i followed by a non-palatal consonant often became io and (in Ulster and elsewhere) iu, as in immaire>Modern Irish iomaire, iumaire `ridge', ticfa>tiocfaidh, tiucfaidh `will come'; yet Scottish Gaelic can be shown to have made no change.(12) Hence we have Modern Irish briosc, as opposed to Scottish Gaelic brisg.
The sixth Scottish Gaelic Awards are staged by the Daily Record and Bord na Gaidhlig with category sponsors Historic Environment Scotland, Highlands & Islands Enterprise, Thorntons Investments and Creative Scotland.
music Rachel Newton Singer and harpist Rachel Newton specialises in interpreting traditionalfolk songs in both English and Scottish Gaelic, as well as writing and performing her own instrumental pieces.
Stroh has been part of that vanguard with her earlier publication Uneasy Subjects: Postcolonialism and Scottish Gaelic Poetry (Rodopi, 2011), while Murray Pittock first raised his head above the figurative colonial parapet in Celtic Identity and the British Image (Manchester University Press) in 1999.
Unesco list Scottish Gaelic as "definitely endangered".
In Scotland again it has to be published in English and Scottish Gaelic, but it also has to be translated into the secondary language of each of the 32 local areas, meaning Doric and possibly Urdu or Punjabi too.
The language of this new, Perthshire-based nation was a distinctively Scottish variant of the Q-Celtic Old Gaelic language (one of the great classical languages of early medieval Christendom), as filtered through the minds and speech of P-Celtic Pictish speakers--the forerunner of modern Scottish Gaelic. However, during the 12th century, inspired by continental models of absolute monarchy, the Scottish kings chose to defect from their traditional Celtic civilisation, culture and language.
The "parking" sign for drivers arriving at Asda's store in Morriston has used the Scottish Gaelic term "parcadh" instead of the Welsh word "parcio".
Her own fieldwork was among Scottish Gaelic speakers on the east coast of Scotland.

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