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(skullcap), a genus of plants of the family Labia-tae. The plants are perennial herbs or subshrubs; annual herbs occur infrequently. The leaves vary from entire to pinnatisect. The flowers are arranged in twos in the axils of the upper leaves; they are frequently clustered together in a dense racemose inflorescence. The calyx is two-lipped, with a shield-like formation on the upper lip. The corolla has a helmet-shaped upper lip. There are four stamens; the fruit consists of four nutlets.
There are about 300 species, distributed in temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions. The USSR has about 120 species (with subspecies), growing mainly in the mountains of the Caucasus and Middle Asia. The most common species is S. galericulata, which grows in the European USSR, Siberia, and Middle Asia on floodplain meadows, in swamps, along the shores of reservoirs and canals, and in flooded forests. The plant is used in folk medicine to arrest bleeding. S. baicalensis, which is found in Transbaikalia and the Far East on rocky slopes, in sandy steppes, and along river banks, is a medicinal plant. A tincture of its rootstock and roots is used as a mild hypotensive agent and sedative. Several species, including S. alpina, S. baikalensis, and S. orientalis, are cultivated as ornamentals.
REFERENCEIuzepchuk, S. V. “Shlemnik— Scutellaria L.” In Flora SSSR, vol. 20. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954.
T. V. EGOROVA