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See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913, repr. 1976); T. Rice, The Scythians (1957); H. W. Bailey, Indo-Scythian Studies (1985).
the name used by classical writers to designate the area north of the Black Sea from the seventh to second centuries B.C.
Scythia occupied the steppes between the mouths of the Danube and the Don, including the steppe Crimea and parts of the northern shore of the Black Sea. From the fifth or fourth century B. Cto the third century A.D., a Scythian state headed by a king existed in the region. Scythia was inhabited by both Scythian and non-Scythian tribes; the non-Scythian tribes were close to the Scythians in culture and way of life and politically dependent on the Scythians. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus represented Scythia as a square with sides the length of a 20-days’ journey. After the Sarmatians occupied Scythia, the area north of the Black Sea came to be called Sarmatia.