Sea Peoples

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Sea Peoples,

modern term for any of the groups of people who attacked Egypt and the E Mediterranean by sea and sometimes by land c.1200 B.C. They are recorded as having fought in battles with Egypt during the dynasties of Ramses IIRamses II
, Rameses II,
or Ramesses II
, d. 1225 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XIX dynasty. The son of Seti I, Ramses was not the heir to the throne but usurped it from his brother. He reigned for 67 years (1292–1225 B.C.).
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, when some also served as mercenaries in his armies; MerneptahMerneptah
, d. c.1215 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XIX dynasty; son and successor of Ramses II. He succeeded (1224 B.C.) to the throne when he was already advanced in years. He quelled a revolt in Syria and repulsed a Libyan invasion of the western delta of the Nile.
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; and Ramses IIIRamses III
, Rameses III,
or Ramesses III
, d. 1167 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, 2d ruler of the XX dynasty. He ended the period of anarchy that followed Merneptah rule and reigned c.1198–1167 B.C.
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. They also may have contributed to the downfall of the HittiteHittites
, ancient people of Asia Minor and Syria, who flourished from 1600 to 1200 B.C. The Hittites, a people of Indo-European connection, were supposed to have entered Cappadocia c.1800 B.C.
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 empire. Their origins are unclear and have been the subject of much conjecture and speculation. They may have come from the Aegean, especially Crete, or elsewhere in the Mediterranean and from ancient Asia Minor; their migrations and attacks may have been prompted by drought and crop failures in their own lands. The PhilistinesPhilistines
, inhabitants of Philistia, a non-Semitic people who came to Palestine from a region in the Mediterranean in the 12th cent. B.C. Genetic studies in the 21st cent.
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 have been considered one of the Sea Peoples, but some scholars have questioned that designation.
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References in classic literature ?
And all our thoughts are the thoughts of six-hundred-pounders, and all our speeches; and because we don't want to steal umbrellas ourselves, we forget that below the sea people do want to steal them, and do steal them sometimes, and that what's a joke up here is down there reality--"
The sea cows went on schlooping and grazing and chumping in the weed, and Kotick asked them questions in every language that he had picked up in his travels; and the Sea People talk nearly as many languages as human beings.
From early interactions with traders on desolate desert tracks, to sunken Mediterranean trading vessels, the Nubian Kingdom of Kerma, Nile fortresses, the Sea Peoples, and Persian satraps, there is always a rich story to tell behind Egypt's foreign relations.
Even so, he is able to construct accounts of the Nubian and First Libyan campaigns, the campaign against the Sea Peoples, the Second Libyan campaign, and the Second Libyan War (external display).
Synopsis: Ancient Minoan families flee the devastation and conquest of Crete, and migrate via Cyprus to multicultural Palestine, among wild but advanced Sea Peoples. Defeated in war and put to work by Pharaoh, these new "Philistines" have a real-world promised land: to keep their new homes, they must rebuild Canaan and keep order on roads of trade from Egypt to Babylon--and if they fail, Pharaoh will return in wrath.
The narrative is introduced with a prologue: an epic account of an invasion of "Sea Peoples" into Egypt as recorded in the commemorative inscriptions and temple iconography of Ramses III.
Although such a broadly themed approach makes difficult any organizational scheme for demarcating possibly overlapping domains, this excellent book is divided into two main sections over seventeen chapters: (1) "The Ships: Review of the Evidence," covering Egyptian to Cypriotic, Aegean, Minoan, Sea Peoples, and Homeric beaked ships, as well as extant shipwreck archaeology; and (2) "Aspects of Maritime Activity," ranging from ship construction to types of anchors, methods of propulsion (e.g., sails, oars, or both), navigation, trade, and law.
The hard date in the title of the book is taken from the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses Ill's account of a battle against a group he called the Sea Peoples in 1177.
Excavations at various Philistine sites in Israel, especially the well-known "Philistine Pentapolis," have revealed a culture that is noticeably different from the earlier one that this branch of the Sea Peoples replaced.
A closer analysis of how the drought in the East stimulated the invasions of the Sea Peoples in the West.
The Material Culture of the Northern Sea Peoples in Israel.