Sea of Marmara

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Marmara, Sea of,


Sea of Marmora,

c.4,430 sq mi (11,474 sq km), NW Turkey, between Europe in the north and Asia in the south. The Sea of Marmara, c.175 mi (280 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide, is connected on the east with the Black Sea through the Bosporus and on the west with the Aegean Sea (part of the Mediterranean Sea) through the Dardanelles. İstanbul (Constantinople) is located at the entrance of the Bosporus into the Sea of Marmara. The sea has no strong currents and the tidal range is minimal. In ancient times the sea was known as Propontis [Gr.,=fore-sea] from its position relative to the Black Sea. Its modern name is derived from the small island of Marmara or Marmora (ancient Proconnesus), famous for its extensive marble quarries.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Marmara, Sea of


a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between Europe and Asia Minor. Its name is derived from an island in the sea noted for its rich deposits of white marble; its ancient Greek name was Propontis (from pro, “in front” and pontos, “sea”).

In the northeast the sea is connected with the Black Sea through the Bosporus, and in the southwest it is linked with the Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles. It is 280 km long, has a maximum width of 80 km, and covers an area of 11, 472 sq km. Its average volume is 4, 000 cu km, and its maximum depth is 1, 355 m. The sea was formed as a result of major faults in the earth’s crust, which separated the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The shores are predominantly mountainous, becoming very rugged in the south and east; along its northern coast are numerous submerged reefs. The major islands are Marmara Island and the Princes Islands. The sea does not freeze over; the surface temperature is 9°C in winter and up to 29°C in summer. The hydrological conditions are basically determined by the exchange of water from the Black and Aegean seas through the straits. Salinity on the surface is up to 26 parts per thousand. The sea’s flora and fauna are related to Mediterranean species. Mackerel and other fish are caught in the sea, and it is an important route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The sea has been studied chiefly by the Russian scientists S. O. Makarov and I. B. Shpindler.


Makarov, S. O. Ob obmene vod Chemogo i Sredizemnogo morel St. Petersburg, 1885.
Shpindler, I. B. Materialy po gidrologii Mramomogo moria, sobrannye ν ekspeditsii 1894 na turetskom parokhode “Selianik.” St. Petersburg, 1896.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
I was told that the Bosporus River which unites the Black sea and the sea of Marmara and separates the continents of Europe and Asia is 19 miles (30km) long with a width of 2.3 miles (3.7km) As the only sea route between the oil-rich Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosphorus is one of the busiest waterways in the world.
The Montreux Convention of 1936 guarantees free passage for civilian ships sailing through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles at the other end of the Sea of Marmara, and it is not clear how Turkey will compel vessels to use the canal for a fee.
The Marmara Island has similar water characteristics to the Sea of Marmara; the upper water layer is the Black Sea and the lower water layer is the Mediterranean Sea.
Lower salinities in Cardak Lagoon is due to its location on the Dardanelles, receiving a constant influx of surface waters from the Sea of Marmara with a salinity of 20-25 ppt (Polat & Tugrul 1996).
It has nevertheless built two LNG terminals, one at the Aegean Sea coast and the other at the Sea of Marmara, with a total capacity of 14.2 bcm a year.
The natural-gas-fired CCPP Bandirma II will be built on the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara, near the city of Bandirma in the Balikesir province.
The tunnel runs 1.4 kilometers (4,593 feet) under the Bosporus, the straight that connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara and divides Istanbul between Asia and Europe.
Fireworks from a yacht moored in the Bosphorus Strait- one of the busiest waterways between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, added glitter to the event.
Researchers from the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany, oversaw the construction of a seismic monitoring network on the Princes Islands in the Sea of Marmara off Istanbul, which helped them to identify an area that could act as the source of such a quake, 'The block we identified reaches ten kilometres deep along the fault zone and has displayed no seismic activity since measurements began more than four years ago,' said Marco Bohnhoff, who led the study, which was published in Nature Communications.
What is the modern name for the Hellespont, the strait between the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara? 3.
24 around the Sea of Marmara in Turkey to raise Au 200,000 toward health and educational projects for Palestinian refugees in the Gaza Strip and Lebanon.
The specimens were collected in August and October 2010 from subsurface (0.5m) neritic waters in the Gulf of Gemlik, the Sea of Marmara. The primary hydrographic parameters, such as temperature (18-28oC), salinity (16-18 ppt) and dissolved oxygen (7.96-13.10 mg l-1) were recorded at the sampling stations.