Seasonal Production

Seasonal Production

 

the uneven, season-related output of a product during the year, manifested in an increase, decline, or complete halt of production during particular periods of the year. Seasonality is characteristic of a number of branches of industry, including the meat, dairy, fish, food, and lumber industries, as well as construction and agriculture.

Although seasonal production stems from climatic conditions, it depends, to a decisive degree, on the method of production. As technology and transportation links develop, the feasibility of overcoming seasonal production increases. In the capitalist countries chronic underemployment of production capacities is manifested in seasonal production. In prerevolutionary Russia the majority of the branches of industry were seasonal. Under socialism, seasonal production is effectively controlled. For example, in the USSR, light industry produces diverse products depending on the season, but light industrial enterprises operate on a year-round basis. Seasonal production is being reduced in the Soviet food industry (sugar refining, canning, oil and fat production and wine-making, for example). In addition to the traditional summer assortment of products, the vegetable and fruit canning industry produces canned foodstuffs and flavorings and other semifinished products from fruits and vegetables stored during the winter and autumn. It has thus been possible to organize year-round operation of the canneries and to lower the prime cost of production. There is virtually no seasonality in the baking, confectionery, macaroni, and other branches of the food industry that use industrially processed raw materials. In the sugar industry seasonal production is related to the methods of storing the sugar beet. Extending the processing period results in increased losses in sugar content. Seasonality has been reduced by processing unrefined cane sugar imported from Cuba and by using frozen beets in some areas. In particular branches of the food industry seasonal production is due to uneven consumption of the finished product (nonalcoholic beverages, mineral water, beer, and ice cream). In the salt and fishing industries, as well as in fish processing, climatic conditions result in seasonal production, which declines with improvements in transportation and production equipment. Seasonality is being reduced in construction, the lumber industry, and other branches of industry.

Controlling seasonal production makes it possible to increase product output and make fuller use of labor resources and fixed assets.

S. A. SUDAKEVICH

In agriculture, seasonal production is caused by the dependency of the production cycle on periods of the year (seasons), owing to the biological characteristics of cultivated plants and agricultural animals. The amount of labor required for agricultural jobs varies with the season, giving rise to a variable demand for labor power. Seasonal production is most characteristic of the land-cultivation sectors, in which the seasons are winter, spring sowing, tending the plants and haying, harvesting cereal crops, harvesting late agricultural crops, and autumn plowing.

Seasonality is less marked in livestock raising, which has two seasons, winter and summer. It is possible to regulate certain biological processes, such as breeding and the growth and development of animals. It is also possible to organize the maintenance of large groups of livestock and poultry in one place, according to their sex, age, and economic purpose, and to create the conditions for the simultaneous (parallel) performance of jobs related to tending the animals and obtaining livestock products.

In Soviet agriculture seasonal production is being reduced by rationally combining sectors, by integrating production, by mechanizing labor intensive jobs, by creating agroindustrial associations, and by organizing the production of products on an industrial basis.

REFERENCES

Likvidatsiia sezonnosti proizvodstva na konservnykh i ovoshchesushil’nykh predpriiatiiakh. Moscow, 1963.
Sudakevich, S. A. Osobennosti planirovaniia i ucheta na predpriiatiiakh konservnoi promyshlennosti v novykh usloviiakh raboty. Moscow, 1970.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Inventories as at June 2019 went up 12% q-o-q (up 36% y-o-y) to 15.9 m cts due to seasonal production growth at alluvial deposits and lower sales.
CSAs connect farmers directly to consumers in financial and practical ways, the simplest of which is where consumer 'members' buy shares in the farm's seasonal production - or supply labour - both in return for food.
- Work to do: Implement seasonal production of flowers, maintain care of ornamental plants, peaches, kumquat, grass; decoration work in Lang area, Ba Dinh square, Monument to martyrs and related architectural works.
The decrease in loans held for sale was primarily in mortgage loans, which decreased $102.7 million, as seasonal production decreased.
The study aims to transform the seasonal production of solar energy through photovoltaic (PV) cells into PV panels from temporary--in the summer months only--to permanent in order to keep up with the increasing demand for electricity.
The energy output will be verified on a monthly basis, in accordance with the seasonal production curve informed by each generator and, in case of deficits not covered through bilateral contracts, settlement will occur in the spot market in the following month.
The value of food industries came as a result of the increase of oils production and the start of new production lines in flour mills, increase in the contracts and seasonal production of sugar cane companies and the availability of raw materials for the production of edible oil refining, according to CAPMAS.
He said that guava orchids are spread over 8,980 hectares in Larkana and seasonal production is beyond 83,000 metric tons.
Highlights of the seasonal production will be a haunted cemetery tour, a "Buried Alive Experience" where attendees can feel what it's like to be buried in a fresh grave complete with funeral procession, a "Zombie Prom" on Halloween night, Will Keenan's special readings of the poems of Edgar Allan Poe ("One Man Poe" Oct.
As such, plant output is likely to follow seasonal production patterns, with a short winter shut-down, though the project partners have not ruled out accessing the spot milk market "if the economic circumstances are right".
"I couldn't have picked a worse business for cash flow." Although Freeman's honey reportedly reaps over $1.2 million in revenue, the ebb and flow of seasonal production makes him a perfect candidate for borrowing working capital from PayPal, which will automatically help him pay the loan back as profits trickle in.
That means the Saudis are calling a seasonal production cut a major policy decision in an effort to influence the market.

Full browser ?