Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasants Deputies

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasants’ Deputies


held in Petrograd from Nov. 26 to Dec. 10 (Dec. 9-23), 1917. In addition to the delegates who came from the provinces, the congress was attended by all the delegates of the Extraordinary All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasants’ Deputies (1917). Of the 790 delegates who attended, there were 305 Center and Right SR’s (Socialist Revolutionaries), 350 Left SR’s, 91 Bolsheviks, and others. The Right SR’s attempted to draw the Left SR’s, who held a compromise position, over to their side and to take the congress in tow. A sharp struggle unfolded between the Right SR’s and the Bolsheviks over the attitudes to be taken toward the Constituent Assembly and the decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of November 28 (December 11), which proclaimed the Cadets (Constitutional Demo-crats)—the organizers of the Civil War—to be enemies of the people. V. I. Lenin delivered an explanation and defense of the Bolshevik position to the congress on December 2 (15). Initially, the Right SR’s won adoption of their resolution on the transfer of power in the country to the Constituent Assembly and of their censure of the actions of the Council of People’s Commissars with respect to the Cadets. The Bolshevik faction insisted on a second vote, and the congress adopted the resolution of the Left SR’s.

In the resolution on the land question, which was proposed by the Left SR’s, the congress hailed the abolition of private property in land by the Soviet government but called for the solution of the land question “in the spirit of the SR party program.” The Right SR’s walked out of the congress. After this, the congress approved the activity of the Soviet government and adhered to the decrees and resolutions of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. A new executive committee of the Soviets of Peasants’ Deputies was elected. Of the 250 members, 108 (20 Bolsheviks, 81 Left SR’s, 1 SR maximalist, and six nonparty people) joined the joint All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Peasants’ Deputies. The congress was of great importance in consolidating Soviet power.


Lenin, V. I. “Rech’ na Vtorom Vserossiiskom s “ezde Sovetov krest’ianskikh deputatov, 2 (15) dek. 1917 g.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 35.
Lenin, V. I. “Proekt vozzvaniia Vtorogo Vserossiiskogo s“ezda Sovetov krest’ianskikh deputatov k krest’ianstvu.” Ibid. Istoriia KPSS, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1967. Pages 482-86.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.