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mineral or organic particles that are deposited by the action of wind, water, or glacial ice. These sediments can eventually form sedimentary rocks (see rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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Classification of Sediments

Sediments are commonly subdivided into three major groups—mechanical, chemical, and organic.

Mechanical, or clastic, sediments are derived from the erosion of earlier formed rocks on the earth's surface or in the oceans. These are then carried by streams, winds, or glaciers to the site where they are deposited. Streams deposit sediment in floodplainsfloodplain,
level land along the course of a river formed by the deposition of sediment during periodic floods. Floodplains contain such features as levees, backswamps, delta plains, and oxbow lakes.
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 or carry these particles to the ocean, where they may be deposited as a deltadelta
[from triangular shape of the Nile delta, like the Greek letter delta], a deposit of clay, silt, and sand formed at the mouth of a river where the stream loses velocity and drops part of its sediment load.
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. Ocean sediments, especially in the form of turbidites, are usually deposited at the foot of continental slopes (see oceansocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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). Glaciers carry sediment frozen within the mass of the ice and are capable of carrying even huge boulders (erratics).

Chemical sediments are formed by chemical reactions in seawater that result in the precipitation of minute mineral crystals, which settle to the floor of the sea and ultimately form a more or less chemically pure layer of sediment. For example, evaporation in shallow basins results in a sequence of evaporite sediments, which include gypsum and rock salt.

Organic sediments are formed as a result of plant or animal actions; for example, peat and coal form by the incomplete decay of vegetation and its later compaction. Deep-ocean sediment known as pelagic ooze consists largely of the remains of microscope organisms (mostly foraminifera and diatoms) from the overlying waters as well as minor amounts of windblown volcanic and continental dust. Limestones are commonly formed by the aggregation of calcite shells of animals.

Formation of Sedimentary Rock

Sediments form sedimentary rock by compaction and cementation of the particles. Thus, coarse sediments become conglomeratesconglomerate,
in geology, sedimentary rock composed largely of pebbles or other rounded particles whose diameter is larger than 2 mm (.08 in.). Essentially a cemented gravel, conglomerates are formed along beaches, as glacial drift, and in river deposits.
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; sands become sandstonesandstone,
sedimentary rock formed by the cementing together of grains of sand. The usual cementing material in sandstone is calcium carbonate, iron oxides, or silica, and the hardness of sandstone varies according to the character of the cementing material; quartz sandstones
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; and muds become shaleshale,
sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes. Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock.
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. Sedimentary rocks make up only about 5% of all rocks of the earth's crust, yet they cover 75% of the land area in a veneer that averages 2.26 km (1.4 mi) in thickness, ranging from 0 to 12.9 km (0–8 mi).


Transported and deposited particles or aggregates derived from rocks, soil, or biological material.


A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice; or a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess.
A solid material that is not in solution and either is distributed through the liquid or has settled out of the liquid.


The matter which settles to the bottom of water or any other liquid.


material that has been deposited from water, ice, or wind
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, in an estuarine sediment transport model, errors in the water depth and/or current speed at a given location will result in an over- or underestimation of the bed shear stress.
The main objective of this work is to validate a three-dimensional computational model for the sediment transport, developed specifically to obtain results in a short time period.
Nestor Mendez, "Sediment transport applications in irrigation canals," Irrigation and Drainage, vol.
Keywords: Alluvial channel, design theories, sediment, design parameters, sediment transport rate theories.
This paper investigates the steady pattern of bend River flow as well as variations of angles of intakes and sediment transport due to two discharges events and 5 angles of intakes using CCHE2D.
c) coupling to sediment transport and biogeochemical (BGC) models to simulate water quality and sediment dynamics from catchment to reefs;
Suspended sediment transport, however, was not involved in this coupled model.
This distribution, which in the case of Taiwan will be greatly influenced by Typhoons, affects streambed stability, sediment transport rates, and flood levels by defining the roughness of the stream channel.
The strong winds of rather long duration and permanent direction have the greatest influence on the processes of wave formation, hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the nearshore zone.
Several Christians have made concerted efforts to explain the errors of Flood geology and have alluded to the problem of sediment transport. Citing a graphical procedure presented by prominent Flood geologist Steve Austin in Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe for estimating Flood current velocities said to be necessary to deposit cross-bedded sandstones, (3) Greg Neyman qualitatively explained how sediment transport in a year-long Flood would be insufficient to form a single, conspicuous sedimentary formation in Grand Canyon known as the Coconino Sandstone.

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