Sedimentary Deposits

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sedimentary Deposits


mineral deposits formed during the accumulation of sediment on the bottom of rivers and other bodies of water. According to their place of formation they are divided into river, swamp, lake, sea, and ocean deposits. Among ocean deposits a distinction is made between platform and geo-synclinal deposits. Depending on the type of sediment accumulation, sedimentary deposits may be mechanical, chemical, biochemical, or volcanic-sedimentary.

The physicochemical and geological conditions under which sedimentary deposits are formed are related to the general process of the formation of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary deposits are conformable with respect to the sedimentary rocks enclosing them. They usually occupy a strictly defined stratigraphic position and occur in the form of layers or flat lenses. Sometimes, as a result of metamorphism and tectonic movements, they become deformed and acquire more complex contours. Some layers may stretch for dozens of kilometers and reach thicknesses of 500 m (the Solikamsk salts). The mineral composition of sedimentary deposits is determined by three groups of minerals: (1) weathering-resistant detrital minerals carried from the continent (quartz, rutile, and sometimes feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, and mica), (2) products of chemical weathering (kaolinite, mont-morillonite, hydromica, opal, hydroxides of Fe and Mn), and (3) new sedimentary formations (carbonates, salts, phosphates, ore minerals, siliceous products, hydrocarbons).

Sedimentary deposits are extremely important industrially. They include all deposits of combustible minerals (petroleum, gas, coal, and combustible shales), some ores of iron, manganese, and aluminum, and several nonferrous and rare metals (U, Cu, V). Among sedimentary deposits are mineral salts, phosphorites, and large deposits of such building materials as gravel, sand, clay, slate, limestone, chalk, dolomite, marl, gypsum, jasper, and tripoli.


Smirnov, V. I. Geologiia poleznykh iskopaemykh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
But if, as some geologists suppose, a range of older rocks underlies the Weald, on the flanks of which the overlying sedimentary deposits might have accumulated in thinner masses than elsewhere, the above estimate would be erroneous; but this source of doubt probably would not greatly affect the estimate as applied to the western extremity of the district.
And what an amount of degradation is implied by the sedimentary deposits of many countries!
Yet it may be doubted whether in any quarter of the world, sedimentary deposits, including fossil remains, have gone on accumulating within the same area during the whole of this period.
The hills are of a remarkable form; they consist of flat patches of table-land, surrounded by low perpendicular cliffs, like the outliers of a sedimentary deposit. The hill which I ascended was very small, not above a couple of hundred yards in diameter; but I saw others larger.
The ( image ( taken ( by HiRISE , or High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, also highlights the varying light-toned layers of sedimentary deposits on Mars' surface which were caused by erosion, according to ( NASA's website .
This method allows calculating the empirical soil transfer function (FTE) from the spectral ratio of the horizontal and vertical component of an environmental vibration record (natural noise and/or noise generated by human activity) considering that the vertical component is not affected by the sedimentary deposits [7-10].
Two main lithologic types, sandstone and shale, have been described above as characterizing the sedimentary deposits exposed at the Djega section.
Thus, the reaction required to mobilize copper for sedimentary deposits involves the reduction of copper, which would be expected to induce isotopic fractionation favoring [sup.63]Cu, assuming that copper extraction from the source material was incomplete.
While these structures could perhaps affect all sedimentary sequences, later surface indications were covered by more recent sedimentary deposits.
These are residual sedimentary deposits generally found at the base ofPaleocene Patala, Eocene Sohnari beds.