parthenocarpic fruits, fruits which develop without fertilization and do not contain seeds.
Seedless fruits are found on many plants, including a number of vegetable and fruit plants (some varieties of cucumbers, gooseberries, grapes, mandarin oranges, pears, figs, persimmons, bananas, and others). In certain instances this is a normal phenomenon (mandarin oranges, seedless varieties of pears and grapes, and bananas); in others it is found in the accidental absence of fertilization together with normal development of the fruit (certain varieties of apples); and sometimes it is a result of parasites burrowing into the seed bud. Plants which carry seedless fruits do not require pollination. This fact is extremely vital for cultivation in closed soil (in greenhouses and hothouses), for the breeding of introduced plants which have no pollinators among the local fauna, and for plants blooming in bad weather that prevents the flight of pollinators.
The seedless fruits of several plants surpass the taste qualities of the seed-bearing fruits and have a number of advantages for their industrial processing and use as food. For this reason, the breeding of seedless varieties of fruit is of great interest. Species having only seedless fruits either reproduce vegetatively or must be pollinated artificially to obtain seeds (for example, in seedless cucumbers). Triploid forms (in watermelons) or the processing of the ovaries and whole plants with growth substances (in hothouse cultures of tomatoes) are used to get seedless fruits.
D. A. TRANKOVSKII