selective service

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selective service,

in U.S. history, term for conscriptionconscription,
compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samurai in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome,
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Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riotsdraft riots,
in the American Civil War, mob action to protest unfair Union conscription. The Union Conscription Act of Mar. 3, 1863, provided that all able-bodied males between the ages of 20 and 45 were liable to military service, but a drafted man who furnished an acceptable
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). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300. General conscription was reintroduced in World War I with the Selective Service Act of 1917. All men from 21 to 30 years of age (later extended 18 to 45), inclusive, had to register. Exemptions from service were granted to men who had dependent families, indispensable duties at home, or physical disabilities. Conscientious objectorconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
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 status was granted to members of pacifist religious organizations, but they had to perform alternative service. Other war objectors were imprisoned, where several died. By the end of World War I about 2,800,000 men had been inducted.

The United States first adopted peacetime conscription with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. The act provided that not more than 900,000 men were to be in training at any one time, and it limited service to 12 months—later (1941) extended to 18 months. After the United States entered World War II, a new selective service act made men between 18 and 45 liable for military service and required all men between 18 and 65 to register. The terminal point of service was extended to six months after the war. From 1940 until 1947—when the wartime selective service act expired after extensions by Congress—over 10,000,000 men were inducted. A new selective service act was passed in 1948 that required all men between 18 and 26 to register and that made men from 19 to 26 liable for induction for 21 months' service, which would be followed by 5 years of reserve duty.

When the Korean War broke out, the 1948 law was replaced (1951) by the Universal Military Training and Service Act. The length of service was extended to 24 months, and the minimum age for induction was reduced to 18 1-2 years. The main purpose of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 was to strengthen the reserve forces and the National Guard. It required six years of duty, including both reserve and active duty. The Military Selective Service Act of 1967 required all men between the ages of 18 and 26 to register for service. The regular exemptions along with educational deferments were granted. These loopholes and other technicalities tended to discriminate against working-class and poor men, and thus a higher percentage from these groups were drafted.

Due to this perceived discrimination by class and also because of the great unpopularity of the Vietnam War, conscription became a major social issue. There were numerous demonstrations at draft boards and induction centers. Many young men evaded the draft through technicalities or fraud; thousands fled the country or went to prison. In 1973 conscription was abolished in favor of an all-volunteer army. President Gerald R. FordFord, Gerald Rudolph,
1913–2006, 38th president of the United States (1974–77), b. Omaha, Nebr. He was originally named Leslie Lynch King, Jr., but his parents were divorced when he was two, and when his mother remarried he assumed the name of his stepfather.
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 granted clemency to many draft resisters in 1974, and President Jimmy Carter granted amnesty to draft resisters in 1977. In 1980, Congress reinstituted draft registration for men 18 to 25 years old. If there were to be a crisis, registered men would be inducted as determined by age and a random lottery.

References in periodicals archive ?
As discussed in the popular press, Vice President Dick Cheney's first daughter, Elizabeth, was born 9 mo 2 d after the Selective Service System announced that childless married men were to be drafted (Boston Globe 2000; Slate Chatterbox 2004).
Then courts will be free to establish a new line of precedents distinct and separate from the Selective Service system cases.
This all seems to have had its origin in a February 11, 2003, Selective Service System proposal to senior Pentagon officials which said:
This type of duty was seriously reduced in 1940 when the Selective Training and Service Act was passed, and the Selective Service System was established as an independent agency.
But the military failed to meet recruitment goals and, with the Cold War emerging, Congress established the Selective Service System on July 1, 1948.
59) Between 1964 and 1973, the Selective Service System classified 310,199 registrants as conscientious objectors.
Selective Service System registration file of potential young male draft candidates
Lewis Hershey, director of the Selective Service System, provided detailed testimony about the 18 percent of men who had been rejected for induction because of severe mental illnesses and the additional 14 percent who had been rejected because of mental deficiency; thus, one-third of America's potential fighting force was ineligible because of medical problems affecting their brains.
Presently the inspector general of the Selective Service System, he accepted the award with characteristic modesty.
The four-building, 129,032-square-foot Oregon Square complex, built in the 1940s, originally housed the Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Land Management and Selective Service System offices.
For the past 13 years, he has served in the US Air Force Reserves as the commander of the Selective Service System for the State of Washington.
12 when Secretary of the Army John McHugh said if "true and pure equality" is to be realized in the military, women will eventually have to register with the Selective Service System.

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