selective service

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selective service,

in U.S. history, term for conscriptionconscription,
compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samurai in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome,
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.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riotsdraft riots,
in the American Civil War, mob action to protest unfair Union conscription. The Union Conscription Act of Mar. 3, 1863, provided that all able-bodied males between the ages of 20 and 45 were liable to military service, but a drafted man who furnished an acceptable
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). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300. General conscription was reintroduced in World War I with the Selective Service Act of 1917. All men from 21 to 30 years of age (later extended 18 to 45), inclusive, had to register. Exemptions from service were granted to men who had dependent families, indispensable duties at home, or physical disabilities. Conscientious objectorconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
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 status was granted to members of pacifist religious organizations, but they had to perform alternative service. Other war objectors were imprisoned, where several died. By the end of World War I about 2,800,000 men had been inducted.

The United States first adopted peacetime conscription with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. The act provided that not more than 900,000 men were to be in training at any one time, and it limited service to 12 months—later (1941) extended to 18 months. After the United States entered World War II, a new selective service act made men between 18 and 45 liable for military service and required all men between 18 and 65 to register. The terminal point of service was extended to six months after the war. From 1940 until 1947—when the wartime selective service act expired after extensions by Congress—over 10,000,000 men were inducted. A new selective service act was passed in 1948 that required all men between 18 and 26 to register and that made men from 19 to 26 liable for induction for 21 months' service, which would be followed by 5 years of reserve duty.

When the Korean War broke out, the 1948 law was replaced (1951) by the Universal Military Training and Service Act. The length of service was extended to 24 months, and the minimum age for induction was reduced to 18 1-2 years. The main purpose of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 was to strengthen the reserve forces and the National Guard. It required six years of duty, including both reserve and active duty. The Military Selective Service Act of 1967 required all men between the ages of 18 and 26 to register for service. The regular exemptions along with educational deferments were granted. These loopholes and other technicalities tended to discriminate against working-class and poor men, and thus a higher percentage from these groups were drafted.

Due to this perceived discrimination by class and also because of the great unpopularity of the Vietnam War, conscription became a major social issue. There were numerous demonstrations at draft boards and induction centers. Many young men evaded the draft through technicalities or fraud; thousands fled the country or went to prison. In 1973 conscription was abolished in favor of an all-volunteer army. President Gerald R. FordFord, Gerald Rudolph,
1913–2006, 38th president of the United States (1974–77), b. Omaha, Nebr. He was originally named Leslie Lynch King, Jr., but his parents were divorced when he was two, and when his mother remarried he assumed the name of his stepfather.
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 granted clemency to many draft resisters in 1974, and President Jimmy Carter granted amnesty to draft resisters in 1977. In 1980, Congress reinstituted draft registration for men 18 to 25 years old. If there were to be a crisis, registered men would be inducted as determined by age and a random lottery.

References in periodicals archive ?
All four of these variables came from the Selective Service System (2014a; 2014b).
Initially, all males 21 to 36 years old were required to register with the Selective Service System.
It also corresponds to about 28% of the Selective Service System calls for inductees in those months (The Selective Service System 1968).
Although the current absence of a draft eliminates a need for the Selective Service System to continuously operate a large-scale program, the Alternative Service Program is establishing the programs necessary to accomplish this mission in the event of a return to the draft.
Decades ago, I plotted with him while I was employed by the United Church of Christ to end the military Selective Service system.
Selective Service System. Finkelstein is the co-author of West Publishing's two-volume treatise on landlord-tenant law and serves as the co-executive editor of acclaimed law journal, Landlord-Tenant Monthly.
S.412 LARKIN Makes registration with the selective service system by persons required to do so by federal law a precondition for the award of state-sponsored financial aid for higher education; directs the department of education and the New York state higher education services corporation to jointly promulgate rules to implement this requirement; explicitly exempts females as long as they are not required to register with the selective services system under federal law; directs educational institutions to inform male applicants of such requirement.
The Church of the Brethren Service Center in Maryland, site of Anabaptist organizing around issues of conscientious objection to military service, received a surprise visit last October from the director of the Selective Service System's Alternative Service Division.
Twenty-eight million dollars has been added to the Selective Service System budget to prepare for military conscription which could, if approved, begin operation as early as June 2005.
His primary duties--similar to the duties of Brigadier General Fry during the Civil War--were related to the management of the Selective Service System.
(59) Between 1964 and 1973, the Selective Service System classified 310,199 registrants as conscientious objectors.

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