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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an individual’s assessment of himself, his possibilities, his qualities, and his place among other people.

As part of the nucleus of the personality, self-evaluation is a very important regulator of behavior. A person’s self-evaluation determines his relationships with others, his critical faculties, the demands he makes on himself, and his attitude toward success and failure. Self-evaluation is linked with the level of the person’s aspirations, or the degree of difficulty involved in attaining his goals. A discrepancy between a person’s aspirations and his actual capacities leads to an incorrect self-evaluation, as a result of which his behavior may become inappropriate. There may be emotional outbursts and increased anxiety. Self-evaluation is also objectively expressed in a person’s evaluation of the possibilities and consequences of the activity of others.

Soviet psychologists have demonstrated the influence of self-evaluation on cognitive activity in man (perceptions, ideas, and the solution of intellectual problems). In addition, Soviet psychologists have defined techniques of forming adequate self-evaluations and methods of transforming distorted ones by exerting educational influence on the personality.


Anan’ev, B. G. “Psikhologiia pedagogicheskoi otsenki.” In Trudy Instituta mozga im. V. M. Bekhtereva, vol. 4. Leningrad, 1935.
Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie ν detskom vozraste. Moscow, 1968.
Lipkina, A. I., and L. A. Rybak. Kritichnost’ i samootsenka ν uchebnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1968.
Lipkina, A. I. “Samootsenka i formirovanie lichnosti shkol’nika.” Voprosyfilosofii, 1973, no. 12.
Hoppe, F. “Erfolg und Misserfolg.” Psychologische Forschung, 1930, no. 4.
Allport, G. W. Pattern and Growth in Personality. New York, 1961.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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