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the ability of biologic systems to automatically adjust and maintain at comparatively constant levels various physiological and other biologic parameters. The controlling factors do not act on the regulated system from without but originate within the system itself. The process of self-regula-tion is frequently cyclic in nature. The deviation of any vital factor from its constant level stimulates the mobilization of the apparatus that restore it. The particular mechanisms of self-regulation vary considerably at different levels of the organization of living matter—from the molecular to the supraorganismic.

An example of self-regulation at the molecular level is an enzyme reaction in which the final product influences the activity of the enzyme. In this biochemical system, a certain concentration of the reaction product is automatically maintained. Several examples of self-regulation at the cellular level include the self-assembly of cellular organelles from biologic macromole-cules, the self-organization of different kinds of cells followed by the formation of orderly cellular associations, the maintenance of a certain transmembrane potential in excitable cells, and the regular temporal and spatial succession ion flows during the excitation of a cellular membrane.

Self-regulation is an important factor in cell division and differentiation. In mammals, for example, after part of the liver has been removed, the remaining part regenerates, automatically compensating for the loss: this is an instance of self-regulation at the organ level. The neural, humoral, and hormonal mechanisms have been studied thoroughly at the organism level. In man and other mammals these mechanisms adjust and maintain at a certain level various parameters of the internal environment, including temperature, blood and osmotic pressures, and blood sugar.

Neuroregulation is one of the principal mechanisms of the self-regulation of functions. The self-regulation of supraorganismic systems includes the regulation of population size, sex ratios, aging, and death. Supraorganismic systems include populations at the species level and biocenoses at the supraspecies level. The general patterns of self-regulation are studied by biological cybernetics. Regulation by disturbance and by deviation occurs in biological systems; the second mode differs from the first by the presence of feedback from the outputs of a system to its regulators.

Specialists differ in their interpretation of the concept of self-regulation. This is related to the differences existing between the biologic systems in which automatic regulation takes place. These systems include those in which the regulated parameters are constants and the result of regulation is stereotypical, for example, the stereotypical and therefore “senseless” behavior of insects under certain conditions. Automatic regulation is also characteristic of adaptive systems, for example, self-adjusting, self-organizing, and self-teaching systems, that automatically adapt to changing external conditions.


References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, the self-motivation that is a necessary component of self-regulation depends on perceived self-efficacy as well as intrinsic interest in the task at hand.
The importance of self-regulation has been well documented (Bercher, 2012; Cleary, Platten, & Nelson, 2008; Hughes et al.
Statistical tests bear this out, with self-regulation failing to make a meaningful difference and cognitive effort stealing the show.
This research found that self-regulation increased students' career decision self-efficacy and career exploration behaviors (e.
Keywords: Self-regulation, Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, Decision-making styles.
Consequently, the overarclllng aim of this study is to identify and assess barriers to H&S self-regulation in the Nigerian construction industry, factoring in the sizes of the companies.
Key words: Feedback loop, self-regulation, resilience, quality of life, direct and indirect effect.
Introducing a form of self-regulation involves other stakeholders such as individual practitioners, the public, employers and, other key stakeholders.
Furthermore, Roy Baumeister and Julie Exline (1999), drawing from these empirical findings regarding self-regulation, offer the analogy of a moral muscle as an appropriate way to conceptualize the capacity for self-regulation.
In order to take them into consideration, as well as complying with current regulations, the agents that interact within this scope have approved an increasing set of self-regulation instruments.
Self-regulation is one's ability to direct his or her own behavior instead of being passively affected by external influences (Bandura, 1991).
Self-regulation is the ability to manage behavior so as to make "good" choices that match the expectations of parents, school, and the classroom.