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in finance, instruments giving to their legal holders rights to money or other property. Securities include stocks, bonds, notes, mortgages, bills of lading, and bills of exchange. See speculationspeculation,
practice of engaging in business in order to make quick profits from fluctuations in prices, as opposed to the practice of investing in a productive enterprise in order to share in its earnings.
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 and stock exchangestock exchange,
organized market for the trading of stocks and bonds (see bond; stock). Such markets were originally open to all, but at present only members of the owning association may buy and sell directly.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



documents indicating a right of ownership (such as stocks, bonds, letters of credit, bills of exchange, checks, and bills of lading) that may only be redeemed upon their presentation. The various categories of securities are (1) securities made out in the name of a specific person, (2) securities made out in the name of the first purchaser and “at his order” (meaning that the person indicated thereon is entitled to transfer the securities by endorsement), and (3) securities that are payable to the bearer and do not indicate in whose name they were issued.

The loss of securities usually means loss of the right to redemption expressed therein. In some instances, however, measures are indicated to protect the rightful owner. Thus a procedure is established in Soviet legislation by means of which the rights of the bearer may be restored upon loss of a savings book.

In capitalist society the principal types of securities are stocks and bonds issued by capitalist enterprises and state loan bonds. Mortgage deeds issued by mortgage banks on land, houses, and other immovable property are a special kind of bond. Securities may represent a capital share in an enterprise or may be evidence of money lent out, and they may confer the right to a regular income in the form of dividends or interest.

The issuance of securities is one of the most important operations of finance capital; it is used by monopolies to extract maximum profits—for example, the huge amounts of founders’ profits obtained from the issuance of securities of newly organized stock companies. Since securities yield an income to their owners, they are bought and sold at specified prices on the stock exchange.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
11, 2013)); Self-Regulatory Organizations and "Benchmark Orders," Exchange Act Release No.
Today's actions make clear that the CFTC will partner with self-regulatory organizations to find and swiftly prosecute those who engage in such disruptive trading practices, wherever they may be."
A self-regulatory organization (SRO) is an organization or association registered under the Securities Regulation Code that is empowered to make and enforce its own rules among its members or persons associated with members.
The law in Arkansas is designed to permit an employer to comply with the requirements of federal, state, or local laws/rules/regulations or the rules or regulations of self-regulatory organizations, such as FINRA.
CFTC delegates most of the oversight of futures brokers to industry-funded regulators or "self-regulatory organizations." The National Futures Association is responsible for smaller firms like Peregrine and exchanges oversee their members, which are mostly larger firms.
The Investment Adviser Oversight Act of 2012 would authorize "one or more self-regulatory organizations for investment advisors funded by membership fees."
Chapters cover all three areas of regulation--federal, state, and self-regulatory organizations (SROs)--and examine corporate governance as positive law, but include normative and empirical perspectives and incorporate discussions of new developments and evolving practices.
On the downside, Branch said a requirement to create self-regulatory organizations is already resulting in what he called "regulator arbitrage," saying a similar framework has already been attempted and abandoned in Mexico.
Today, almost a dozen federal regulatory agencies, numerous self-regulatory organizations, and hundreds of state financial regulatory agencies share responsibility for overseeing the financial services industry.
In addition to the laws and "listing requirements" of self-regulatory organizations, such as the New York Stock Exchange and National Association of Securities Dealers (now FINRA, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority), we also have the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants), ISS (Institutional Shareholder Services), COSO (the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission), IIA (the Institute of Internal Auditors), the state of California, and others vying for attention.
Malcolm Wall Morris, Chief Executive Officer of DGCX, said, "We are very pleased to become part of the IOSCO membership base of more than 180 regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations world-wide.
While the Commission and the various self-regulatory organizations in its orbit made a great show of increasing regulation in the post-Sarbanes-Oxley period, it has been the onset of technology that has caused greater discomfort to the Street than any new edict emanating from Washington.