Self-Organization

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self-organization

[‚self ‚ȯr·gə·nə′zā·shən]
(chemistry)
The capability of a system to spontaneously generate a well-defined supramolecular entity by self-assembling from components in a given set of conditions.

Self-Organization

 

a process during which the organization of a complex dynamic system is created, reproduced, or improved. Self-organization processes can occur only in systems that have a high level of complexity and a large number of elements; the relations between the elements must be of a probabilistic rather than a rigid nature. The properties of self-organization are exhibited by such diverse systems as a living cell, an organism, a biological population, a biocenosis, and a human community. The processes of self-organization involve the reorganization of existing relations between elements of the system and the formation of new relations. It is characteristic of self-organization processes that such processes are goal-oriented but, at the same time, natural and spontaneous. These processes may occur when the system interacts with the environment, but they are to some degree autonomous and are relatively independent of the environment.

Three types of processes of self-organization are distinguished. The first type is the self-generation of organization, that is, the emergence of a new, integral system with its own specific regularities from some aggregation of integral objects of a given level. An example is the genesis of multicellular organisms from unicellular ones. The second type comprises processes by which a system maintains a certain level of organization when changes occur in the external and internal conditions under which the system functions. The chief object of study here is homeostatic mechanisms (see HOMEOSTASIS), in particular, mechanisms whose operation is based on the negative-feedback principle. The third type involves the improvement and self-development of systems that are able to accumulate and make use of experience.

The problems of self-organization were first subjected to special investigation in cybernetics. The term “self-organizing system” was introduced by the English cyberneticist W. R. Ashby in 1947. Extensive study of self-organization began in the late 1950’s for the purpose of discovering new principles permitting the construction of equipment with a high level of reliability and the designing of computers capable of modeling various aspects of human mental activity. The investigation of the problems of self-organization has become one of the chief ways in which the ideas and methods of cybernetics, information theory, and systems theory enter biological and social knowledge.

REFERENCES

Braines, S. N., and A. V. Napalkov. “Nekotorye voprosy teorii samoor-ganizuiushchikhsia sistem.” Voprosyfilosofii, 1959, no. 6.
Samoorganizuiushchiesia sistemy. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)
Printsipy samoorganizatsii. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Kremianskii, V. I. Strukturnye urovni zhivoi materii. Moscow, 1969.
Prigozhin, A. I. Sotsiologicheskie aspekty upravleniia. Moscow, 1974.
Self-organizing Systems. Washington, 1962.
Form by, J. An Introduction to the Mathematical Formulation of Self-organizing Systems. London, 1965.

B. G. IUDIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Chatterjee, "Action, an extensive property of self-organizing systems," International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol.
From this perspective, self-organizing systems require four basic components or elements that explain their nonlinearity: (a) positive feedback--represented in simple rules that promote the creation of structures, (b) negative feedback which helps stabilize collective patterns, (c) multiple interactions between the parts through direct and indirect communications that allow agents to be able to use both the results of its activities and those of others, and (d) amplifying fluctuations referred to randomness for discovery of new solutions and alternatives that facilitate growth and strengthening of the structure.
John McEwan, a computer programmer by trade, will take up this direction and latent possibility when he responds to Grey Walter's piece with an article of his own, published in Anarchy in September of 1963, and titled 'Anarchism and the Cybernetics of Self-Organizing Systems'.
Carsi presents a proposal to support the autonomic reconfiguration of hierarchical software architectures, taking a semi-decentralized approach to tackle the problems of maintainability present in self-organizing systems and scalability in self-adaptive ones.
Swapna); (9) A Framework for Systematic Database Denormalization (Yma Pinto); (10) Experiments with Self-Organizing Systems for Texture and Hardness Perception (Magnus Johnson and Christian Balkenius); (11) Diagnosing Parkinson by Using Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines (David Gil and Magnus Johnson); (12) Secured Data Comparison in Bioinformatics Using Homomorphic Encryption Scheme (Gorti VNKV Subba Rao); (13) Performance Evaluation of Message Encryption Scheme Using Cheating Text (Ch.
Proclaiming the physics of self-organizing systems, such as biological organisms, to be a core future area of science, the editors (both of Waseda U., Japan) present 20 papers from a September 2007 international symposium that brought together young researchers in the field.
The most important of the three properties discussed in this article is that self-organizing systems arrange themselves along energy gradients.
It can lead to efficient, self-organizing systems and goal-based organizations.
Major discussion threads on self-organizing systems, the value of information, chaos theory, and the significance of "intent" push hard against conventional thinking.
That they can accept free market economics as yet another one of these bottom-up self-organizing systems. And I'm trying to convince my conservative friends who already like free market economics that evolution is an OK thing.
Due the advantages and possibilities of decentralized self-organizing systems, researchers focused on approaches for distributed, content-addressable data storage so called Distributed Hash Tables (DHT).

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