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in the Ottoman Empire:

Selim I the Grim (Yavuz). Born 1467/68 or 1470/71; died Sept. 20, 1520, in Istanbul. Sultan from 1512.

Selim I continued his predecessors’ policy of conquest. Opposing Safavid Iran under the banner of defying Shiism, he brutally massacred Shiites in Anatolia. In 1514 he routed the army of Shah Ismail I at Chaldiran and seized western Armenia, Kurdistan, and other lands. In 1515 he completed the conquest of eastern Anatolia and Armenia, and in 1516 he overran northern Iraq, Syria, and Palestine. In 1517 he conquered Egypt; thenceforth the holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina recognized the primacy of the Ottoman sultans. Selim assumed the title of caliph, which significantly raised the authority of the Ottoman sultans in the Islamic world. In 1519 he suppressed an uprising of the Jelali.


Tansel, S. Yavuz Sultan Selim. Ankara, 1969.
Selim III. Born Dec. 24, 1761; died July 28, 1808, in Istanbul. Sultan from 1789 to 1807.

Selim III is known for his reform efforts aimed at saving the Ottoman Empire from crisis at home and abroad. By his order, a few secular and religious notables outlined and in part carried out a program of reforms—the Nizam-i cedid. However, when feudal reaction opposed the reforms and janissary disturbances broke out, Selim lacked the courage to support his confederates. On May 29, 1807, he was removed from the throne; a year later he was killed.


Miller, A. F. Mustafa pasha Bairaktar. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Shaw, St. Y. Between Old and New: The Ottoman Empire Under Sultan Selim III, 1789–1807. Cambridge, Mass., 1971.


References in classic literature ?
He was leaning on the shoulder of his favorite Selim, and he drove us all before him, as a shepherd would his straggling flock.
I remember well that the oars made no noise whatever in striking the water, and when I leaned over to ascertain the cause I saw that they were muffled with the sashes of our Palikares.* Besides the rowers, the boat contained only the women, my father, mother, Selim, and myself.
"Near the barrels stood Selim, my father's favorite, whom I mentioned to you just now.
Go into the cavern with Haidee.' -- `I will not quit you,' said Vasiliki; `if you die, my lord, I will die with you.' -- `Go to Selim!' cried my father.
Selim was still at his post, and smiled sadly on us as we entered.
One single, solitary light was burning there, and it appeared like a star set in a heaven of blackness; it was Selim's flaming lance.
`They are approaching,' said she; `perhaps they bring us peace and liberty!' -- `What do you fear, Vasiliki?' said Selim, in a voice at once so gentle and yet so proud.
`My child,' said Vasiliki, `may God preserve you from ever wishing for that death which to-day you so much dread!' Then, whispering to Selim, she asked what were her master's orders.
`Stop,' said Selim, seeing that she was about to go out; you see I have not yet received the ring,' --
Selim was sulky and took a swipe at him with his paw, and he whopped it to him full in the mouth just as he opened it to let out a roar.
They carried me to Constantinople, where the Grand Turk, Selim, made my master general at sea for having done his duty in the battle and carried off as evidence of his bravery the standard of the Order of Malta.
Behind you is the sea; in front is a level green valley, (a marsh, in fact,) extending far away among the mountains; to the right of the front view is the old citadel of Ayassalook, on a high hill; the ruined Mosque of the Sultan Selim stands near it in the plain, (this is built over the grave of St.