Review of oil shale semicoke
and its combustion utilization.
Oil shale can yield shale oil, retorting gas, and semicoke
by retorting technology [2, 3].
Our earlier study of the origin of these phenols showed that most of them still originate from the process water added to the waste residue and even from the groundwater that had been contaminated with phenols before it was used for cooling the semicoke
Because the pyrolysis temperature is low and the technical process is fixable, therefore, it can be both final disposal to prepare some hydrogen-rich gas, tar, and semicoke
, and so forth, for the future of the people's demand and middle disposal to realize the polygeneration with gases, tar, and semicoke
which produced in pyrolysis process .
has similar chemical properties with activated carbon, but its price is only one-third of activated carbon or so, which can be widely used as low-cost adsorbent in the fields of flue gas desulfurization and denitrification, oil purification, and wastewater treatment [7-9].
When used for oil extraction, approximately half of the oil shale turns into semicoke
On continuous pyrolysis these mesophases are extensively deformed by bubble percolation; eventually viscosity significantly increases to allow further deformation and a fine fibrous microstructure of needle coke is established as the mesophase congeals to semicoke
All these changes were due to semicoke
formation, because in the range of about 350-500 [degrees]C the thermal degradation of coal proceeds, and gas (mainly hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides), reaction water and tar are evolved.
is also lagging behind in developing technologies for using coal in the future including processing coal into synthetic liquids, motor fuels, gas and semicoke
The amount of minerals is high in oil shale, which after the thermal decomposition go over to semicoke
. As a result, the ash content of semicoke
becomes higher and its calorific value lower than oil shale's, which reduces the economic value of semicoke
and restrains its use .
found that the action of semicoke
in reforming reaction was similar to the effect of catalyst .
In 1990, 3.332 Mt of coke and semicoke
was exported as compared with 3.156 Mt in 1989 (+5.2%).