Firstly, oil shale is transported into a retort furnace to produce shale oil, semicoke
and retorting gas.
Our earlier study of the origin of these phenols showed that most of them still originate from the process water added to the waste residue and even from the groundwater that had been contaminated with phenols before it was used for cooling the semicoke
When used for oil extraction, approximately half of the oil shale turns into semicoke
On continuous pyrolysis these mesophases are extensively deformed by bubble percolation; eventually viscosity significantly increases to allow further deformation and a fine fibrous microstructure of needle coke is established as the mesophase congeals to semicoke
Assessment of vegetation performance on semicoke
dumps of Kohtla-Jrve oil shale industry, Estonia
Review of oil shale semicoke
and its combustion utilization.
Another topic to be dealt with in parallel is fast pyrolysis of oil shale where semicoke
could be used as a source of solid heat carrier in order to increase the overall process efficiency.
The waste dump of limestone and oil shale residues differed from semicoke
heaps in the absence of species A.
However, the oil shale industry employing these technologies  has yet to tackle with several critical problems, such as harmful semicoke
waste, complicated multistage technological scheme for retorting , high energy consumption in ICP, etc.
Yield of the pyrolysis products of kerogen Product Yield, wt% Semicoke
18 Shale oil 72 Gas + losses 10
2% after bioleaching, that of semicoke
decreased respectively from 81.
For example, Kiviter and Fushun retorting processes produce a large amount of harmful semicoke
waste, and Galoter has a complicated multistage technological scheme.