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see LatviaLatvia
, Latvian Latvija, officially Republic of Latvia, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,993,000), 24,590 sq mi (63,688 sq km), north central Europe. It borders on Estonia in the north, Lithuania in the south, the Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Riga in the west, Russia in the
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For example, Nicholas bore proud and sonorous titles: 'Nicholas II, by God's grace, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, Tsar of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia, the Tauric Chersonese, Georgia, Lord of Pskov, Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, Prince of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bielostok, Karelia, Tver, Yougoria, Perm, Viatka...
The connection between prehistoric strongholds and holy places in Estonia is also suggested by Valk (2007, 157 f.), and the connection between these two seems to be even more evident in neighbouring areas, for example in Semigallia (Urtans 2001) or Scandinavia (Andren 2014, 87 ff.).
Between 1237 and 1290, the Livonian Order had established its presence in Courland, Livonia, and Semigallia, which were populated by the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people.
The last Master of the Livonian Order, Gotthard Kettler, was now the first hereditary Duke of Courland and Semigallia under the Polish-Lithuanian rule, and the royal governor in Livonia proper in 1562-1566, before he was forced to resign from office on suspicion of attempting to create new alliances and pursue independent policies, and lost his influence.
Giving the background for King Valdemar II's expedition in 1219, Holberg writes: (46) But the Pagans in Livonia had reinforced themselves from Prussia, Lithuania, Semigallia and Russia in order to drive the Christians out again, and all those who had sworn allegiance to the Danish kings.