For example, Nicholas bore proud and sonorous titles: 'Nicholas II, by God's grace, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, Tsar of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia, the Tauric Chersonese, Georgia, Lord of Pskov, Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, Prince of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and Semigallia
, Samogitia, Bielostok, Karelia, Tver, Yougoria, Perm, Viatka...
The connection between prehistoric strongholds and holy places in Estonia is also suggested by Valk (2007, 157 f.), and the connection between these two seems to be even more evident in neighbouring areas, for example in Semigallia
(Urtans 2001) or Scandinavia (Andren 2014, 87 ff.).
Between 1237 and 1290, the Livonian Order had established its presence in Courland, Livonia, and Semigallia
, which were populated by the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people.
The last Master of the Livonian Order, Gotthard Kettler, was now the first hereditary Duke of Courland and Semigallia
under the Polish-Lithuanian rule, and the royal governor in Livonia proper in 1562-1566, before he was forced to resign from office on suspicion of attempting to create new alliances and pursue independent policies, and lost his influence.