Seminole


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Related to Seminole: Seminole County, Seminole War

Seminole,

Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They separated (their name means "separatist") from the Creek in the early 18th cent. and settled in the former territory of the Apalachee in Florida. They gradually grew in strength, absorbing many runaway black slaves and some members of the Apalachee tribe. While still under Spanish rule, the Seminole became involved in several major confrontations with the United States, particularly in the War of 1812 and again in 1817–18. In the retaliatory expedition of 1817–18, Gen. Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with more than 3,000 men to punish the Seminole. By the Treaty of Paynes Landing (1832), the Seminole were bound to move W of the Mississippi River within three years. Most Seminole, led by OsceolaOsceola
, c.1800–1838, leader of the Seminole. He was also called Powell, the surname of his supposed white father. In the early 1830s, Osceola was living close to Fort King, near the site of Ocala, Fla.
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, refused to go and prepared themselves for resistance.

In 1835 began the Seminole War, which proved to be the most costly of the Indian warsIndian wars,
in American history, general term referring to the series of conflicts between Europeans and their descendants and the indigenous peoples of North America. Early Conflicts
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 in which the United States engaged. Lasting for nearly eight years, it cost the lives of thousands of Seminole and 1,500 U.S. soldiers, as well as at least $30 million. Finally defeated in 1842, the Seminole consented to move to Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized TribesFive Civilized Tribes,
inclusive term used since mid-19th cent. for the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes of E Oklahoma. By 1850 some 60,000 members of these tribes were settled in the Indian Territory under the Removal Act of 1830, which provided that
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. A few Seminole remained isolated in the EvergladesEverglades,
marshy, low-lying subtropical savanna area, c.4,000 sq mi (10,000 sq km), S Fla., extending from Lake Okeechobee S to Florida Bay. Characterized by water, sawgrass, hammocks (islandlike masses of vegetation), palms, pine and mangrove forests, and solidly packed black
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. In 1990 there were about 15,500 Seminole in the United States, mostly in Florida and Oklahoma.

Bibliography

See J. K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War (1967); J. H. Howard, Oklahoma Seminoles (1984); M. S. Garbarino, The Seminole (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
With over 44,000 square feet of space, Seminole PowerSports has the ability to offer a wide range of new and used power sports equipment and vehicles for purchase.
The expansion of Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino will open in mid-2019, in advance of Super Bowl LIV at nearby Hard Rock Stadium in February 2020.
The Seminole Tribe is headquartered in the city of Hollywood, and is one of two federally recognized tribes in the state of Florida.
The aforementioned tenets, with a particular emphasis on principles three and four, were utilized in this study to examine the selected responses of Black Seminoles as they negotiated the circumstances surrounding their experiences with the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma.
Margaret Maud McKellar (1873-1963), a white woman who owned a ranch near the Black Seminole settlement of Nacimiento de los Negros in Coahuila, Mexico.
When the Seminole Tribe of Florida called a press conference in Times Square in December 2006 to announce its acquisition of Hard Rock International for 965 million making it the first major multinational tribally owned company it launched a media frenzy.
Upon the closing of the sale, the company will enter into various gas marketing and sales arrangements with Seminole Energy Services, the parent of Seminole Gas.
In it, he found the story of affiliations between Black runaways and the Seminole Indians "very appealing.
The logo was part of a new promotional agreement between McDonald's and the Seminole County school district, but the rewards program had been in place in one form or another for more than 10 years.
In the process he seized the peninsula for the United States, executing those who opposed him and "cleaning out" many Seminole and Black Seminole villages to make Florida more suitable for annexation.
ENERGY RESOURCE-1 March 2007-Florida's Seminole Electric Cooperative Issues RFP for Renewable Energy(C)2007 JeraOne - http://www.
Before the first players take the field at a Florida State University football game, a student dressed as Chief Osceola, a 19th-century Seminole warrior, rides a horse to the 50-yard line and throws a flaming spear into the ground.

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