Seminole


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Seminole,

Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They separated (their name means "separatist") from the Creek in the early 18th cent. and settled in the former territory of the Apalachee in Florida. They gradually grew in strength, absorbing many runaway black slaves and some members of the Apalachee tribe. While still under Spanish rule, the Seminole became involved in several major confrontations with the United States, particularly in the War of 1812 and again in 1817–18. In the retaliatory expedition of 1817–18, Gen. Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with more than 3,000 men to punish the Seminole. By the Treaty of Paynes Landing (1832), the Seminole were bound to move W of the Mississippi River within three years. Most Seminole, led by OsceolaOsceola
, c.1800–1838, leader of the Seminole. He was also called Powell, the surname of his supposed white father. In the early 1830s, Osceola was living close to Fort King, near the site of Ocala, Fla.
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, refused to go and prepared themselves for resistance.

In 1835 began the Seminole War, which proved to be the most costly of the Indian warsIndian wars,
in American history, general term referring to the series of conflicts between Europeans and their descendants and the indigenous peoples of North America. Early Conflicts
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 in which the United States engaged. Lasting for nearly eight years, it cost the lives of thousands of Seminole and 1,500 U.S. soldiers, as well as at least $30 million. Finally defeated in 1842, the Seminole consented to move to Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized TribesFive Civilized Tribes,
inclusive term used since mid-19th cent. for the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes of E Oklahoma. By 1850 some 60,000 members of these tribes were settled in the Indian Territory under the Removal Act of 1830, which provided that
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. A few Seminole remained isolated in the EvergladesEverglades,
marshy, low-lying subtropical savanna area, c.4,000 sq mi (10,000 sq km), S Fla., extending from Lake Okeechobee S to Florida Bay. Characterized by water, sawgrass, hammocks (islandlike masses of vegetation), palms, pine and mangrove forests, and solidly packed black
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. In 1990 there were about 15,500 Seminole in the United States, mostly in Florida and Oklahoma.

Bibliography

See J. K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War (1967); J. H. Howard, Oklahoma Seminoles (1984); M. S. Garbarino, The Seminole (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Second, the fact that the Black Seminoles were enslaved is at the centerpiece of the Seminole argument as to why they should be excluded from monetary disbursements and complete cultural group membership (Robertson, 2008).
Margaret Maud McKellar (1873-1963), a white woman who owned a ranch near the Black Seminole settlement of Nacimiento de los Negros in Coahuila, Mexico.
The following night, he will appear in the Seminole Hard Rock Winterfest Boat Parade on Dec.
Seminole PowerSports is a 44,000 square foot super store that contains both new and used power sports such as ATV's, motorcycles, dirt bikes, scooters, side by sides, personal water craft, and more.
The ruling in Seminole Rock stands in tension with two far more deeply settled principles of Anglo-American law.
The contract is for Seminole Countys entire fleet of more than 200 fire vehicles and equipment.
This measure is in addition to green initiatives already in place at the Hard Rock cafes, hotels, and casinos globally and at Seminole's Florida casinos.
The war was also known as Billy Bowlegs' War because Billy Bowlegs (Holata Micco) was the main Seminole leader in this the last Indian war to be fought east of the Mississippi River.
This work chronicles the Second Seminole War of the mid-19th century, when Seminole Indians, aided by escaped black slaves and maroons, fought a guerilla war against the US military in the Florida wilderness.
Designed to resemble back-to-back guitars, with guitar faces, necks and brightly lit guitar strings that reach 450 feet into the sky on both sides, the iconic Hard Rock guitar tower is under construction as part of a $1.5 billion expansion of Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, Hollywood.
Howell Emanuel Donaldson III, the man charged with murdering four people in the Seminole Heights neighborhood of Tampa, Florida came into the Ybor City McDonald's and (https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/29/us/tampa-serial-killer-arrest.html) handed a gun to his coworker Tuesday.

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