Seminole

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Seminole,

Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They separated (their name means "separatist") from the Creek in the early 18th cent. and settled in the former territory of the Apalachee in Florida. They gradually grew in strength, absorbing many runaway black slaves and some members of the Apalachee tribe. While still under Spanish rule, the Seminole became involved in several major confrontations with the United States, particularly in the War of 1812 and again in 1817–18. In the retaliatory expedition of 1817–18, Gen. Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with more than 3,000 men to punish the Seminole. By the Treaty of Paynes Landing (1832), the Seminole were bound to move W of the Mississippi River within three years. Most Seminole, led by OsceolaOsceola
, c.1800–1838, leader of the Seminole. He was also called Powell, the surname of his supposed white father. In the early 1830s, Osceola was living close to Fort King, near the site of Ocala, Fla.
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, refused to go and prepared themselves for resistance.

In 1835 began the Seminole War, which proved to be the most costly of the Indian warsIndian wars,
in American history, general term referring to the series of conflicts between Europeans and their descendants and the indigenous peoples of North America. Early Conflicts
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 in which the United States engaged. Lasting for nearly eight years, it cost the lives of thousands of Seminole and 1,500 U.S. soldiers, as well as at least $30 million. Finally defeated in 1842, the Seminole consented to move to Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized TribesFive Civilized Tribes,
inclusive term used since mid-19th cent. for the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes of E Oklahoma. By 1850 some 60,000 members of these tribes were settled in the Indian Territory under the Removal Act of 1830, which provided that
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. A few Seminole remained isolated in the EvergladesEverglades,
marshy, low-lying subtropical savanna area, c.4,000 sq mi (10,000 sq km), S Fla., extending from Lake Okeechobee S to Florida Bay. Characterized by water, sawgrass, hammocks (islandlike masses of vegetation), palms, pine and mangrove forests, and solidly packed black
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. In 1990 there were about 15,500 Seminole in the United States, mostly in Florida and Oklahoma.

Bibliography

See J. K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War (1967); J. H. Howard, Oklahoma Seminoles (1984); M. S. Garbarino, The Seminole (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Abraham and Cudjo) played prominent roles and enjoyed high status within the Seminole Nation (Robertson, 2008).
It is whit [sic] pleasure that the free Cuban Government takes this opportunity, in return, to formally recognize your newly established government as the duly constituted government of the Sovereign Miccosukee Seminole Nation.
The Traditional Seminole Nation rejected federal recognition and the corporate structure of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, which formed in 1957.
Major organization : HOUSING AUTHORITY OF THE SEMINOLE NATION
In the following quote, Miller (2005) seems content in referring to the Black Seminoles as a group that is trying to plunder the Seminole Nation and who would be best served by seeking reparations from the United States government along with the status of a sovereign nation.
Jesup refused to return the African slaves to their owners in the South; he sent them West as part of the Seminole Nation.
Speakers such as Miami-Dade Commissioner Katy Sorenson, Robert Carr of the Archaeological Historical Conservancy, Bobby Billie of the Independent Traditional Seminole Nation, and Tom Goldstein of Miami-Dade County Attorney's office will address the issue from political, scientific, spiritual, and legal standpoints.
The new clients include the Seminole Nation Truck Plaza, Oklahoma; the Seminole Nation Rivermist Travel Plaza, Oklahoma; the Keetoowa Band of Cherokees, Oklahoma; the Ardmore Gaming Center, operated by the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma; the Shoshone-Bannock in Pocatello, Idaho; the Ft.
McBride serves as attorney general of the Seminole Nation, served as justice of the Pawnee Nation Supreme Court from 2003 until 2012, and is the former attorney general to the Sac and Fox Nation.
The recording ends with "Songs Concerning the Removal of The Seminoles to Oklahoma", which as we know, was far from the end of the Seminole Nation, who have not just survived but thrived in modernity, just as Songs of The Seminole Indians of Florida celebrates the musical legacy which has produced contemporary Seminole artists like Jim Billie and Tiger, Tiger.
59 million; Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, $900,000; Seneca Cayuga Nation, $25,000; and Wyandotte Nation, $200,19.
In Oklahoma, the Seminole Nationwill be using its funding to construct the Seminole Nation Veterans Affairs Department.

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