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see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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The liquid portion that remains when blood is allowed to clot spontaneously and is then centrifuged to remove the blood cells and clotting elements. It has approximately the same volume (55%) as plasma and differs from it only by the absence of fibrinogen. See Fibrinogen

Blood serum contains 6–8% solids, including macromolecules such as albumin, antibodies and other globulins, and enzymes; peptide and lipid-based hormones; and cytokines; as well as certain nutritive organic materials in small amounts, such as amino acids, glucose, and fats. Somewhat less than 1% of the serum consists of inorganic substances. Small amounts of respiratory gases are dissolved in the serum, as is the gas nitric oxide, which serves as a chemical messenger and vasodilator. Small amounts of waste material are also present. These substances, along with other small molecules which are not bound to blood proteins, are filtered out as blood flows through the kidney. See Blood, Kidney

Certain types of sera, both human and animals, are used in clinical medicine. Immune serum and hyperimmune serum either are developed by naturally occurring disease or are deliberately prepared by repeated injection of antigens to increase antibody titer for either diagnostic tests or the treatment of active disease. These sera are referred to as antisera, since they have a specific antagonistic action against specific antigens. See Antibody, Antigen, Biologicals, Immunity

By custom, the clear portion of any liquid material of animal origin separated from its solid or cellular elements is also referred to as sera. These fluids are more properly referred to as effusions. See Serology

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The liquid portion that remains when blood clots spontaneously and the formed and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation; it differs from plasma by the absence of fibrinogen.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. See blood serum
2. antitoxin obtained from the blood serum of immunized animals
3. Physiol zoology clear watery fluid, esp that exuded by serous membranes
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Wedi hynny, bydd y mentoriaid yn dewis y chwe seren ddisgleiria' i gystadlu yn rownd derfynol Chwilio am Seren Junior Eurovision, fydd yn cael ei darlledu yn fyw ar S4C o Venue Cymru, Llandudno ar nos Fawrth, 24 Medi.
Seren said: "I would expect this if I was paying [pounds sterling]50 a week but I am paying almost [pounds sterling]120 to live in a deluxe studio."
"Seren's doing really well, she's currently going to a private nursery but she'll be starting reception in September with the other children her age.
Seren has been training for six months for tomorrow's marathon and has recently completed the Liverpool halfmarathon.
Seren Vivian - has set her sights on winning the Miss England title
"Although all my tests were fine Pat was not happy - I think she helped save Seren's life."
Reveley jnr settled Seren Gris in behind in the early stages before kicking on two flights from home.
University IP commercialisation company Fusion IP plc (AIM:FIP) reported today that a collaboration agreement has been signed by its portfolio company Seren Photonics Ltd.
Contact Seren Foods on 01691 718809 or visit
Seren, aged 42, is offering the reward after reporting the attack to the police.