Serfs


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Serfs

 

a category of direct producers in medieval Western Europe. During the formative period of feudalism there were two types of serfs—those who constituted a stratum of late classical Roman society, occupying a position similar to that of Roman slaves, and those who constituted a stratum of Teutonic society, with their actual status determined by the relations of patriarchal slavery among the Germans. During the period of developed feudalism the serfs constituted a category of dependent feudal peasants extremely limited in their civil and economic rights.

References in periodicals archive ?
Conditions of serfs and slaves in Tibet have been documented in many historical records and traveler's tales.
The general secretary of Eka, Panikos Champas, said he sent the president a letter asking him to set May 12 as the day of the struggles of the island's farmers, who had the status of serfs during the Frankish rule (1191 -- 1489), and for the rebellion against serfdom to be taught in schools and universities.
Serfs vote to at least maintain if not increase the rate of government largesse, which in turn leads to greater indebtedness on the part of the state, since it is unable to raise sufficient taxes from the remaining segments of the population: a diminishing middle class made up of the scientific and technological elite and those who service them, and at the apex, the owners (employers) of that human elite group and of the physical capital involved in the application of the innovative process.
Yours respectfully, ROBERT HANDYSIDE (Saxon Serf), Swarland, Northumberland
But here's the difference, and it really is a crucial one: a union baron can be toppled if enough serfs vote for someone else when Mr Scary Boss is up for re-election.
Under such a regime, people were divided into three major strata, with about 90 percent of the population slaves or serfs.
They also were not about to get rid of their serfs, who farmed the land and were the backbone of Russian agriculture.
Consider two edges [E.sub.i] and [E.sub.j] obtained either from two identical SERFs recognized on two parallel faces or from an SERF and a face parallel to the SERF which satisfy the conditions for corresponding edges.
And it is here, in large part, that Stites finds the answer to the conundrum of how it was that relatively-backward Russia suddenly exploded so spectacularly onto the global arts stage after the serf emancipation of 1861.
The two other members of St Serfs caught another 17 - added to Ian's catch, it was the best team haul of the day.
One such constraint was the need for defense of the frontier, and thus the razriad wanted the area settled but also had to try to satisfy owners of runaway serfs. In the second quarter of the century, the authorities made the return of runaways difficult, but after 1649 the policy changed to the advantage of the claimants.