Sergei Bulgakov


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Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolaevich

 

Born June 16, 1871, in Livny; died July 13, 1944, in Paris. Russian bourgeois economist, philosopher, and theologian. Professor of political economy in Kiev (1901-06) and Moscow (1906-18). In 1918 he entered the priesthood. He lived as an émigré after 1923 and became professor at the Russian Theological Institute in Paris in 1925.

Bulgakov began with “legal Marxism” (Markets in Capitalist Production, 1897; Capitalism and Agriculture, vols. 1-2, 1900) and erroneously asserted that the Marxist theory of capitalist development does not apply to small agricultural production in Russia. He tried to combine Marxism with I. Kant’s critical gnoseology; later he turned to religious philosophy and Christianity (the collection From Marxism to Idealism, 1903). From this position, which combined Christian teaching with the philosophical conceptions of F. Schelling (philosophy of nature and philosophy of identity) and VI. Solov’ev (system of absolute oneness and the teaching of godmanhood), Bulgakov attacked Marxism as well as positivism and atheism (the collections Landmarks, 1909, Two Cities, vols. 1-2, 1911). Bulgakov tried to solve sociopolitical problems with the help of religious metaphysics (The Philosophy of Economics, 1912). Bulgakov’s conceptions were given their final form in the book The Unfading Light, in which religious philosophy, which, in Bulgakov’s opinion, has “one universal problem—the problem of god and only of god” (Moscow, 1917, p. 76), has already developed into a theology. Bulgakov’s basic ideas are the system of absolute oneness and the teaching about holy Sofia, of whom Bulgakov considered the mother of god to be the embodiment. According to Bulgakov, the world is a revelation or embodiment of god and, therefore, life on earth has to be Christianized. Marxists sharply criticized Bulgakov’s economic and philosophical views and his political position (see V. I. Lenin, “Agrarnyi vopros i ‘kritiki Marksa,’ ” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 5; “O ‘Vekhakh,’ ” ibid., vol. 19).

WORKS

O bogochelovechestve, parts 1-3. Paris-Tallin, 1933-45.

REFERENCES

Plekhanov, G. V. “O tak nazyvaemykh religioznykh iskaniiakh v Rossii.” Izbr. filosofskie proizvedeniia, vol. 3. Moscow, 1957.
Zen’kovskii, V. V. Istoriia russkoi filosofii, vol. 2. Moscow, 1956. Chapter 6.
Istoriia filosofii, vol. 5. Moscow, 1961.
Istoriia russkoi ekonomicheskoi mysli, vol. 3, part 1. Moscow, 1966. Chapters 6, 7, 10.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nesterov's 1917 painting "Philosophers" is of the two most notable Orthodox philosophers in Russian history, Sergei Bulgakov and Pavel Florensky.
also highlights areas of concern, such as the highly gendered theologies of Sergei Bulgakov (1871-1944) and Pavel Evdokimov (1901-1970), whose positive aspirations in this arena may not have been adequately realized.
In a chapter on Solzhenitsyn and Raymond Aron, the distinguished French liberal, Mahoney acknowledges the two men's differences but insists that they "did not belong to completely different spiritual families." Yet although Solzhenitsyn shared Aron's anti-communism, knew Tocqueville's Democracy in America well, and held views similar to those of Burke, he was deeply rooted in a Russian tradition that looked to Gogol, Dostoevsky, and the contributors--Nikolai Berdyaev, Sergei Bulgakov, Pyotr Struve--to Vekhi ("Landmarks"), the 1909 collection of essays that caused a sensation by defending the religious basis of life and attacking Russia's atheist and socialist "intelligentsia."
His topics include the demise of nature and the phenomenology of givenness, nature and city in the Greek East, environmental metaphysics in Sergei Bulgakov's Philosophy of Economy, theoria physike in the thought of St.
In the following parts of the book, Rubin analyzes theologians such as Sergei Bulgakov and Pavel Florensky; philosophers such as Nicolai Berdyaev, Lev Shestov, or Semyon Frank; and many others.
Philaret's Orthodox Christian Institute and Moscow Higher School of Economics) read Sergei Bulgakov's Sophia: The Divine Wisdom, he was struck by the parallels between Jewish mysticism and Orthodox Russian religious thought.
Each representative that he studies in depth (Thomas Aquinas, Karl Barth, and Sergei Bulgakov) fits more than one of his types.
En segundo lugar, se ocupa Nichols del teologo ortodoxo Sergei Bulgakov, quien hace una interesante y sugerente profundizacion en la teologia del icono en clave trinitaria y pneumatologica, junto con el misterio de la encarnacion y el pasaje de la Transfiguracion (ademas de algunas interesantes alusiones a una <<mariologia iconica>>).
Paris in the 1920s and '30s became the intellectual heart of Russian emigration, and Tataryn has focused on some of the brightest lights of the Russian Diaspora: George Fedotov, Sergei Bulgakov, Georges Florovsky, Vasilii Zenkovskii and Nikolai Berdiaev.
Only occasionally are the names of Russian thinkers of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries mentioned - Nikolai Stankevich, Timofei Granovsky, Ivan Turgenev, Nikolai Ogarev, Sergei Bulgakov, Paul Florensky, Vladimir Solovyov, Dostoevsky, Nikolai Berdiaev - and even then often in but a single line.
Throughout this period in Paris, and thanks to his relations with Fr Sergei Bulgakov, who was "the living example of an Orthodoxy that is both open to dialogue with others and firm in its convictions", he was able to remain abreast of the work of the Faith and Order movement, whose first world conferences took place in Lausanne in 1927 and Edinburgh in 1937.