Sergei Witte


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Witte, Sergei Iul’Evich

 

Born June 17 (29), 1849, in Tbilisi; died Feb. 28 (Mar. 13), 1915, in Petrograd. Russian statesman.

The son of a high official, Witte graduated from the physics and mathematics department of Novorossiiskii University (Odessa) in 1870. In the same year he was appointed traffic chief of the Odessa Railroad, and he subsequently worked for about 20 years for private railroad companies. This long service contributed to Witte’s development as a financier and state official. In 1883 he published the book Principles of Railway Freight Tariffs, which brought him renown. In 1889, Witte became director of the railroad department of the Ministry of Finance; in February 1892, minister of transportation; and in August 1892, after LA . Vyshnegradskii’s resignation, minister of finance. Witte had a great influence on the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian government. He actively promoted the development of Russian capitalism and tried to combine this process with the strengthening of the tsarist monarchy.

Major economic measures were carried out on Witte’s initiative. A liquor monopoly was introduced in 1894, the Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed, and other railroad construction was begun in the 1890’s. A monetary reform was carried out in 1897, under which gold circulation was introduced, and a free exchange of the credit ruble for gold was established. Witte’s policy of forcing economic development was inseparably linked with introducing foreign capital to industry, as well as bank and state loans. This was facilitated by the protectionist tariffs of 1891 and the political rapprochement with France. In 1894 and 1904 customs agreements were signed with Germany.

On Jan. 22, 1902, the Special Conference on the Needs of Agricultural Industry was set up at Witte’s initiative and under his chairmanship. His program of agrarian demands included proposals that were later used by P. A. Stolypin. The local committees of the conference (82 provincial and regional and 536 district committees) approved the voluntary transfer of peasants from communal to individual landholdings. Nicholas II decided not to carry out the reform and the conference was closed on Mar. 30, 1905. Witte opposed the broadening of the zemstvo (local self-government) institutions. In an argument with I. L. Goremykin (1899) he demonstrated that the zemstvo institutions could lead to a constitution.

Witte tried to uphold the policy of Japan in the Far East and, pursuing a course toward a rapprochement with China, he opposed the seizure of Port Arthur. He took part in signing a defensive alliance with China against Japan and an agreement concerning the construction of the Chinese-Eastern Railroad in Manchuria. Believing that a military conflict would be premature, Witte favored an agreement with Japan. To a large extent, this determined the sharp differences between his policy and the foreign policy of Nicholas II and the Bezobrazov clique. In August 1903, Witte was retired from the post of minister of finance and appointed chairman of the Committee of Ministers. He was the head of the delegation that signed the Portsmouth Peace Treaty of 1905 with Japan. For this he received the title of count.

From October 1905 until April 1906, Witte was head of the Council of Ministers. During the October All-Russian Political Strike of 1905, he forcefully advocated a program of concessions to the bourgeoisie, which found its expression in the Manifesto of Oct. 17, 1905. Although he pursued a policy of accommodation, Witte was at the same time the initiator of punitive expeditions to Siberia, the Baltic region and Poland, and he sent troops from St. Petersburg to suppress the armed uprising in Moscow. In 1906 he obtained a loan of 2.25 million francs from French bankers. All these measures strengthened the position of the government in the struggle against the revolution. However, Witte found himself too far to the left for most of the dvorianstvo (nobility or gentry) and the upper stratum of the ruling bureaucracy and too far to the right for the bourgeois liberal circles of the Octobrists’ and Constitutional Democrats’ orientation. He handed in his resignation, which was accepted on Apr. 16, 1906, and spent the last year of his life in St. Petersburg and abroad. Remaining a member of the State Council, Witte participated in the work of the Finance Committee, of which he was chairman until his death. From 1907 to 1912, Witte wrote his Memoirs, which are of considerable interest for their characterization of the tsarist government’s policy.

WORKS

Vospominaniia, vols. 1-3, Moscow, 1960. (Introductory article by A. L. Sidorov, “Graf S. Iu. Vitte i ego Vospominaniia.”)

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Kitaiskaia voina.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 4.
Lenin, V. I. “Goniteli zemstva i Annibaly liberalizma.” Ibid ., vol. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Po povodu gosudarstvennoi rospisi.” Ibid., vol. 6.
Lenin, V. I. “Razgrom.” Ibid., vol. 10.
Lenin, V. I. “Evropeiskii kapital i samoderzhavie.” Ibid., vol. 9.
Lenin, V. I. “Ravnovesie sil.” Ibid., vol. 12.
Lenin, V. I. “Nachalo razoblachenii o peregovorakh partii k.-d. s ministrami.” Ibid., vol. 21.
Tarle, E. V. Graf S. Iu. Vitte: Opyt kharakteristiki vneshnei politiki. Leningrad [1927].
Romanov, B. A. Ocherki diplomaticheskoi istorii russko-iaponskoi voiny, 1895-1907, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1955.

A. L. SIDOROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Wcislo, Tales of Imperial Russia: The Life and Times of Sergei Witte, 1849-1915.
Count Sergei Witte, minister of transport, wanted rapid industrialisation in Russia, so he persuaded Czar Alexander III to make his heir, the future Nicholas II, chairman of a Siberian Railway Committee.
Schattenberg's article on the Portsmouth peace negotiations of 1905 shows that "open" diplomacy, led by Russian negotiator Sergei Witte, stole the show long before the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
The period with which it is concerned was obviously revolutionary, both politically (as the events of 1905-6, 1917-21 and 1928-33 attest) and in the organisation of economic modernisation (under Sergei Witte's tutelage in the 1890s and, especially, with the onset of Stalin's command planning in the 1930s).
The project was officially announced by Tsar Alexander III in 1891 and the key figure was Count Sergei Witte, a Georgian of Dutch descent who had worked his way up by way of the railways.
As the Tsar's advisor, Count Sergei Witte, warned just before he resigned: "The Russian bunt, mindless, pitiless ...
Electrification was to be for Lenin what railroads had been for Sergei Witte in the 1890s, a critical technology employed by state power to drive industrial and infrastructure development at a swift rate.
The press both reflected and spread this sensibility, creating the window of opportunity that Sergei Witte needed in the first years of his tenure as finance minister, That the four most influential dailies defended diverse interests and proposed different solutions was natural and played into Witte's hands, because he was never forced to deal with a united opposition.
IN THE LAST decade of the nineteenth century, Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte (1849-1915; in office 1892-1903) launched an unprecedented industrialization campaign, which became known as the Witte System.
Count Sergei Witte and the Twilight of Imperial Russia: A Biography (M.E.
Of particular note is Kahan's path-breaking 1967 article on government policies and the industrialization of Russia, which provocatively argues that the positive aspects of state intervention in the era of Sergei Witte are easily exaggerated.
This occurred on such critical occasions as after Dmitrii Karakozov's assassination attempt on Alexander II in 1866--when, through the committee, Chief of Police Peter Shuvalov assumed a preponderant role--and in the 1890s, when Sergei Witte dominated it in order to promote measures to advance industrialization (see below).