Services


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Services

 

(1) A form of nonproductive labor and, in this sense, a socioeconomic relationship expressing the consumption of income.

(2) A purposeful activity existing in the form of a useful effect of labor.

As a form of nonproductive labor, services represent a relationship arising from the useful effect of labor that is consumed as an activity. Thus, a tailor renders a material service in that he makes clothes. It is precisely the transformation of material into clothes that is the service of the tailor; the tailor’s activity is embodied in the clothes. As a result of this activity, economic relations arise that are associated with the consumption of income of those people who use the tailor’s labor. The same kind of economic relations are seen when a tutor is engaged for the instruction of children. But in contrast to the activity of the tailor, the activity of the tutor is not embodied in an object, existing instead as a useful effect of labor that is consumed in the very process of labor, that is, during the process of teaching. As a form of nonproductive labor, services do not express specific relations of one or another method of production. For example, under both capitalism and socialism this form of labor expresses relations whereby labor is exchanged for income. The economic relations characterizing services do not realize the objective of a method of production; therefore, there are relations of nonproductive labor.

Services as special types of use-values, as nonmaterial forms of labor, are not counted in the national income. This applies to the work of, for example, teachers, doctors, actors, and musicians. However, by producing objects of consumption with their labor, these people increase the overall consumption of society and help to create society’s personal consumption fund. Although they have no value, services may have a price, which allows them to be counted in society’s personal consumption fund.

REFERENCES

Sfera obsluzhivaniia pri sotsializme. Edited by E. I. Kapustin. Moscow, 1968.
Marksistsko-leninskaia teoriia stoimosti. Moscow, 1971.
SShA: sfera using v ekonomike. Moscow, 1971.
Solodkov, M. V., and L. S. Krylov. Metodologiia issledovaniia proizvoditel’nogo truda pri kapitalizme. Moscow, 1974.

M. V. SOLODKOV

building services

The utilities and services supplied and distributed within a building generally related to the building environment, including: heating, air-conditioning, lighting, water supply services, drainage services, electrical supply, gas supply, fire protection, and security protection.
References in classic literature ?
'And what would you have?' says she; 'don't I tell you that you shall not go to service till your are bigger?'
'Come,' says she, 'you shan't go to service; you shall live with me'; and this pacified me for the present.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Hartman and I agreed that it was useless to report ourselves to the local chiefs of the secret service. Our failure so to report would be excused, we knew, in the light of subsequent events.
He was very angry, and was cursing the whole secret service. It was always in the way, he was averring, while Hartman was talking back to him and with fitting secret-service pride explaining to him the clumsiness of the police.
Such was the plunging progress of the Bell Companies in this period of expansion, that by 1905 they had swept past all European countries combined, not only in the quality of the service but in the actual number of telephones in use.
This was the famous "Room Nine." By such and many other allurements a larger idea of telephone service was given to the public mind; until in 1909 at least eighteen thousand New York-Chicago conversa- tions were held, and the revenue from strictly long-distance messages was twenty-two thousand dollars a day.
The distance which many of the representatives will be obliged to travel, and the arrangements rendered necessary by that circumstance, might be much more serious objections with fit men to this service, if limited to a single year, than if extended to two years.
A brilliant frigate captain, a man of sound judgment, of dashing bravery and of serene mind, scrupulously concerned for the welfare and honour of the navy, he missed a larger fame only by the chances of the service. We may well quote on this day the words written of Nelson, in the decline of a well-spent life, by Sir T.
"Monsieur de Comminges," said Athos, "I have been a soldier all my life and I know the force of orders; but outside your orders there is a service you can render me."
Though the prayer was unintelligible to the Indians, yet, as they knew what the nature of the service was, Mr.
Athos, on his part, had a valet whom he had trained in his service in a thoroughly peculiar fashion, and who was named Grimaud.

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