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a genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants of the family Pedaliaceae. There are approximately 35 species, growing predominantly in tropical and subtropical Africa. The most widely cultivated species is sesame (Sesamum indicum), which is divided into two subspecies: ssb bicarpellatum (the most common) and ssb quadricarpellatium. The plant is 1–2 m tall and has an erect, branching stem covered with glandular hairs. The leaves are lanceolate or lobed. The large flowers, which measure up to 4 cm wide, are pink, violet, or white; they are axillary and on short peduncles. The fruit is a capsule, which measures 3–4 cm long and has at least two to four carpels, which, upon maturing, dehisce and scatter the seeds (if the capsule has no septa). One thousand seeds weigh between 2 and 5 g.

The Sesamum are photophilic and thermophilic. The seeds sprout at 18°-20°C; the optimum temperature for growth and development is about 25°C. The plants are also hygrophilous, particularly during the period from sowing to blossoming. The growing period is generally from 80 to 150 days, sometimes longer. The plants require most of their nutritive substances, about 70 percent, during flowering and later. They grow best in fine-textured alluvial soils.

Sesame seeds contain 50 to 65 percent oil, which is used in food, in the confectionery, canning, and margarine industries, in medicine, and for industrial purposes. The oil cake is a valuable fodder.

Native to Africa, plants of the genus Sesamum have been cultivated in Ethiopia, Egypt, Greece, Iran, India, Middle Asia, and the Caucasus for a long time. The worldwide planting area of Sesamum is 6.4 million hectares (ha), found principally in India, the Sudan, Burma, and Mexico; in 1971 the total harvest of seeds was 2.1 million tons. In the USSR, sesame is cultivated in small areas in Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Krasnodar Krai; the average seed harvest is 2.5–3.5 centners per ha (on the leading farms, up to 15 centners per ha). The best varieties are Kubanets 55, Tashkent 112, and Serakh 470. Sesame is planted in rotated fields, after winter wheat, cereals, legumes, and corn. Fertilization consists of 90 kg/ha NPK or 10 tons/ha of manure and 30 kg/ha NPK. Sesame is sown in widely spaced rows (45, 60, or 70 cm between rows) when the soil is warmed to 18°-20°C. The seeds are sown at a rate of 6–8 kg/ha, at a depth of 3–4 cm. In irrigated regions sesame is irrigated at a rate of 800–1000 m3/ha. It is harvested when the lower capsules turn brown.


Minkevich, I. A., and V. E. Borkovskii. Maslichnye kul’tury, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1955.
Rukovodstvopo selektsii isemenovodstvu maslichnykh kul’tur. Under the general editorship of V. S. Pustovoit. Moscow, 1967.


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Crops Production in (000) tons Wheat 22,109 Rice 4,996 Bajra 195 Jawar 188 Maize 2,279 Barley 96 Gram 761 Sugarcane 45,316 Cotton 2,488 Tobacco 84 Rapeseed & Mustard 229 Sesamum 33
Biosynthesis of antioxidant lignans in Sesamum indicum seeds.
This work has shown that significant improvement in the nutritional composition of Sesamum indicum seed can be attained through fermentation of the seeds in banana leaf and plastic (high density polyethylene) bowl.
Pakistan's major and minor food crops are wheat, rice, maize, jawar, bajra, barley; cash crops are sugarcane, cotton, sugarbeet and guarseed, pulses are gram, mung, masoor, matter, edible oilseeds are sesamum, groundnut, soybean, sunflower, canola, safflower, and cotton seed.
bajra, jowar, maize, barley, gram, sesamum and cotton, very high values of parity indices are found for a number of years indicating that output prices for these crops had outpaced increases in input prices by a significant margin.
5; 2013) investigated the effects of SesaVita (branded ingredient of Olive Lifesciences and standardized extract of Sesamum indicum) in the management of pre-diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
Singh BK and T Prasad Effect of seed-borne fungi on the phytochemical properties of Sesamum seed oil.
Oilseeds crops: The oilseeds crops include-repassed, mustard, groundnut, sesamum, linseed, soybean, sunflower and safflower.
rice, bajra, maize, barley and sesamum, the 1985-86 season represented a decline in yield per acre, while for most of the other crops the increases were only marginal.
Sesamum indicum is one of the most important oilseed crops with worldwide production reaching about 3*3Mt annually [17].
Igicumucumu MALVACEAE Hibiscus fuscus Garcke Umutozo MELASTOMATACEAE Dissotis throthae Gilg Icyeba PEDALIACEAE Sesamum angolense Welw.