a helminthiasis of animals caused by filariae of the genus Setaria (discovered by Viborg and described in 1795), which parasitize the abdominal cavity, the brain, and the spinal cord. Setarid larvae circulate with the blood.

Setariasis of horses and cattle is widespread in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. The disease affects sheep primarily in the Far East and Southern Asia and red deer and Japanese deer primarily in the Mountain Altai and the Far East.

The source of the causative agent of setariasis is infected animals, and the carriers are bloodsucking mosquitoes and flies. Clinical symptoms depend on the degree of the helminthic affection of the animal and on the localization of the parasites; for example, when the brain and spinal cord are affected, the disease proceeds with the symptoms of gid and paralysis of the hind limbs. Setariasis is diagnosed according to the results of laboratory blood tests, and in some cases diagnosis is made posthumously. The treatment of the disease has not been established; preventive measures include the control of insects that transmit setarids.


Skriabin, K. I., and A. M. Petrov. Osnovy veterinarnoi nematodologii. Moscow, 1964.
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The ocular setariasis spreads mostly in summer and autumn when the mosquito vectors are more prevalent (Mritunjay et al., 2011; Al-Azawi et al., 2012).
In present study, it was concluded that needle paracentesis technique was highly effective in all eight (8) (100%) animals for management of ocular setariasis in equines without any post-operative complications.
Post surgical healing effect of placentrex in equine (Equus cabalus) ocular setariasis: A review of 22 cases.
There are also records of some other mosquito-borne pathogens such as West Nile and Sindbis viruses and diseases like dirofilariasis and setariasis (28-30).
Increased prevalence in winter season could be attributed to two probable reasons; one that cases of ocular setariasis in this part of the country occur only during winter months from November-February and second, that during winter, due to poor blood circulation to peripheral tissues in order to maintain core body temperature, higher threshold of stimulus is required for perception.
Corneal ulceration was the most common ocular affection (22.64%) followed by conjunctivitis (15.09%), prolapse of gland of third eye lid, glaucoma, ocular setariasis and cataract (9.43% each), corneal opacity (7.54%), anopthalmia, traumatic proptosis and traumatic perforation of cornea (3.77% each), eyelid neoplasm, eyelid laceration, and ocular myiasis (1.88% each) (Table 1).
Ocular setariasis is usually treated surgically either by paracentesis (Sreedevi et al., 2002) or by aspiration (Shin et al., 2002).
In India, equine ocular setariasis reported to be the important cause of corneal opacity is commonly caused by Setaria digitata and Setaria equina (Sathu, 1974).