settlement house

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settlement house,

neighborhood welfare institution generally in an urban slum area, where trained workers endeavor to improve social conditions, particularly by providing community services and promoting neighborly cooperation. The idea was developed in mid-19th-century England when such social thinkers as Thomas Hill GreenGreen, Thomas Hill,
1836–82, English idealist philosopher. Educated at Oxford, he was associated with the university all his life. He was professor of moral philosophy there from 1878 until his death.
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, John RuskinRuskin, John,
1819–1900, English critic and social theorist. During the mid-19th cent. Ruskin was the virtual dictator of artistic opinion in England, but Ruskin's reputation declined after his death, and he has been treated harshly by 20th-century critics.
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, and Arnold ToynbeeToynbee, Arnold
, 1852–83, English economic historian, philosopher, and reformer. After his graduation in 1878 he was a tutor at Balliol College, Oxford, and was active in reform work outside the university, particularly among the London poor.
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 (1852–83) urged university students to settle in poor neighborhoods, where they could study and work to better local conditions. The pioneer establishment was Toynbee Hall, founded in 1884 in London under the leadership of Samuel Augustus BarnettBarnett, Samuel Augustus
, 1844–1913, English clergyman and social worker. As vicar of St. Jude's, Whitechapel, in the slums of London, he pioneered in the social settlement movement.
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. Before long, similar houses were founded in many cities of Great Britain, the United States, and continental Europe. Some of the more famous settlement houses in the United States have been Hull House and Chicago Commons, Chicago; South End House, Boston; and the University Settlement, Henry Street Settlement, and Greenwich House, New York City. Settlements serve as community, education, and recreation centers, particularly in densely populated immigrant neighborhoods. Sometimes known as social settlements, they are also called neighborhood houses, neighborhood centers, or community centers. The settlement house differs from other social welfare agencies; the latter provide specific services, while the former is aimed at improving neighborhood life as a whole. Its role has gradually altered as some of its varied functions have been assumed by state and municipal authorities and by other organizations. Kindergartens, formerly an important adjunct of the settlement house, are now operated by the public schools; municipal health departments have taken over its clinical services; and labor unions now sponsor educational and recreational activities for workers. The early leaders of settlement houses in the United States met from time to time and in 1911 founded the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers; Jane AddamsAddams, Jane,
1860–1935, American social worker, b. Cedarville, Ill., grad. Rockford College, 1881. In 1889, with Ellen Gates Starr, she founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in the United States (see settlement house).
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 served as the first president. In 1926 the International Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres was established to coordinate community work on an international level.


See L. Pacey, ed., Readings in the Development of Settlement Work (1951); A. Hillman, Neighborhood Centers Today (1960); A. F. Davis, Spearheads for Reform (1967, repr. 1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Under the lead of the YESHA Council and Gush Katif residents Action Committee (GKAC)--the two dominant organizations of the broader settlement movement (6)--the movement managed to mobilize tens of thousands of activists and supporters to initiate a wide range of institutional and extrainstitutional protest events.
And I remember my friends in the settlement movement in the 1980s, before the first intifada, telling me with those same smiles that the settlements would bring security and the Arab world would swallow our "facts on the ground." Well, the settlements didn't bring us security, and Oslo didn't bring us peace.
(7.) For a comprehensive account of the settlement movement and its development see: Michael Feige, Settling In the Hearts: Jewish Fundamentalism In the Occupied Territories (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2009), and Gadi Taub, The Settlers: And the Struggle Over the Meaning of Zionism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010).
Many middle-class adventurers turned to the settlement movement out of a sense of romanticism as well as sympathy, inspired by dramatic portrayals of "slum life" in realist literature.
Five of the women were Hull House volunteers, a significant area of linkage within the settlement movement. Meetings related to labor, suffrage, civil rights, and other issues were held at Hull House, and it was known as a center of activism (Woods & Kennedy, 1922).
It is true that all Israeli leaders since 1967 have ( supported the settlement movement .
The most recent was a week ago, when suspected Jewish extremists (Price Tag) associated with Israel's settlement movement defiled the Greek Orthodox monastery in Jerusalem with graffiti.
In the opposing corner, in khaki slacks, we have contributing editor Jeff Goldberg, who noted (via the Forward) that the video is an almost word-for-word copy of a video made by a settlers' organization, and concluded, "The Israeli Foreign Ministry Is Now Part of the Settlement Movement."
Israel's February 2009 legislative council elections led to a coalition agreement between Benjamin Netanyahu's conservative Likud party and far-right Yisrael Beitenu, led by Avigdor Lieberman, known to support the settlement movement.
Katharine Bradley here deals generally with the transformation of welfare provision from private initiative to state provision and specifically, with the university settlement movement which began in London's East End in the 1880s.
The campaign drew an angry response from the settlement movement which demanded that Israel close its ports to Palestinian goods.