Sewage disposal

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Sewage disposal

The ultimate return of used water to the environment. Disposal points distribute the used water either to aquatic bodies such as oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, or lagoons or to land by absorption systems, groundwater recharge, and irrigation. Wastewaters must be mixed, diluted, and absorbed so that receiving environments retain their beneficial use, be it for drinking, bathing, recreation, aquaculture, silviculture, irrigation, groundwater recharge, or industry.

Wastewater is treated to remove contaminants or pollutants that affect water quality and use. Discharge to the environment must be accomplished without transmitting diseases, endangering aquatic organisms, impairing the soil, or causing unsightly or malodorous conditions. The type and degree of treatment are dependent upon the absorption capability or dilution capacity at the point of ultimate disposal. See Sewage, Sewage treatment

Discharges into any aquatic system cannot contravene the standards set for the most beneficial use of that water body. Water quality standards are used to measure an aquatic ecosystem after the discharge has entered and mixed with it. Water quality standards relate to the esthetics and use of the receiving environment for public water supply, recreation, maintenance of aquatic life and wildlife, or agriculture. The parameters of water quality, which define the physical, chemical, and biological limits, include floating and settleable solids, turbidity, color, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), numbers of coliform organisms, toxic materials, heavy metals, and nutrients.

Effluent standards define what is allowed within the wastewaters discharged into the aquatic environment. Effluent standards specify the allowed biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, temperature, pH, heavy metals, certain organic chemicals, pesticides, and nutrients in the discharge. Point-source wastewater effluent discharge standards, established for ease of sampling, simplicity of repetitive testing, and clarity for enforcement, are more likely to be used by regulatory agencies. See Environmental engineering

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The bonds in the amount of $2.6 million will be used to finance sewage disposal system improvements within Jamestown Charter Township.
The ever-increasing populations in villages has meant more houses being built and no sewage disposal system in place, he said.
Lootah also announced that the government had approved a Dh3 billion budget for the Municipality to improve sewage disposal in the emirate.
The engineers confirmed that if all the areas that need better sewage disposal were put on sewers, the three sub-basins that are included within the town limits would become "medium-stressed," lowering the level of ponds and brooks in town.
Meter installation and reading is an important practice for several reasons related to your sewage disposal system.
The site also boasts a flourishing organic garden, demonstrations of innovative composting combinations and ecological sewage disposal methods.
The new company, Japan Water Corp., will be capitalized at 40 million yen, equally split between Mitsubishi and Japan Hels Industry, a Tokyo-based company engaging in sewage disposal.
Yamanaka submitted her diary to the court, which said she and Nishino, then an official at a local government institution in charge of sewage disposal, were together in a different place at the time prosecutors said he received money from a sewage disposal company.
The sewage disposal plant meets Japan's domestic standards with regard to density of suspended solids in disposed water, the expedition members said.
He also makes good use of Renaissance medical texts and the history of sewage disposal in Renaissance England.
Environment minister Michael Meacher announced yesterday that water companies would have to clean up sewage disposal and drinking water supplies - and cut the price it charges customers.
New piers would be allowed only for water-related uses such as docks, boat establishments, shipping-related manufacturing uses, sewage disposal plants, and parks.