The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the site of an ancient fortified settlement of Khwarazm, located 90 km southwest of the city of Kunia-Urgench, Tashauz Oblast, Turkmen SSR. The city existed from the fourth century B.C. through the 13th century A.D., although for certain periods it was uninhabited. The cultural layers form a hill surrounded by the remains of fortress walls. The height of the walls in the tenth to 12th centuries was 15 m. In the center of the settlement there are ruins of a mosque and of a four-pillared building, probably a pre-Islamic temple. Pavilions and a small wall from a medieval park have been preserved southwest of the settlement.

Excavations have uncovered carved alabaster ornamentation from the mosque, ceramics, coins, a richly decorated bronze vessel from the 12th century, and an early medieval clay idol.


Rapoport, Iu. A. “Raskopki gorodishcha Shakh-Senem v 1952 g.” Trudy Khorezmskoi arkheologo-etnograficheskoi ekspeditsii, vol. 2. Moscow, 1958.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.