shale

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shale,

sedimentary rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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 formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes. Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock. Shales comprise an estimated 55% of all sedimentary rocks. The composition of shale varies widely. Shales with very high silica content may have been formed when large quantities of diatomsdiatom
, unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies.
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 and volcanic ash were present in the original sediment. Large numbers of fossilsfossil,
remains or imprints of plants or animals preserved from prehistoric times by the operation of natural conditions. Fossils are found in sedimentary rock, asphalt deposits, and coal and sometimes in amber and certain other materials.
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 in shales may give them a high calcium content; such shales may grade into limestoneslimestone,
sedimentary rock wholly or in large part composed of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be colored by impurities, iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. The texture varies from coarse to fine.
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. Shales that contain a large percentage of aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 are used as a source of that mineral in the manufacture of cementcement,
binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.
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, and those that contain natural gas and petroleum have become a significant energy resource in the 21st cent. due to the use of hydraulic fracturing techniques in drilling. Shales containing abundant carbonaceous matter grade into bituminous coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
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.
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shale

[shāl]
(petrology)
A fine-grained laminated or fissile sedimentary rock made up of silt- or clay-size particles; generally consists of about one-third quartz, one-third clay materials, and one-third miscellaneous minerals, including carbonates, iron oxides, feldspars, and organic matter.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

shale

Argillaceous sedimentary rock derived from clays or silts; typically thinly laminated and weak along planes; may be undesirable as a concrete aggregate.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

shale

a dark fine-grained laminated sedimentary rock formed by compression of successive layers of clay-rich sediment
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Yang, "Thermal and hydrocarbon generation history of Wufeng and Longmaxi shales in Pengshui area, eastern Sichuan Basin: a well PY1 case study," Petroleum Geology & Experiment, vol.
A study, completed in cooperation with USAID in 2015, has confirmed the presence of 10,159 trillion cubic feet (TCF) Shale gas and 2,323 billions of stock tank barrels (BSTB) Shale oil in place resources.
In August, a senior energy official announced that Iran is cooperating with renowned German energy firms in its shale gas and oil projects.
But with oil prices relatively high, around $90 a barrel, the quest for new shales is under way, often in regions where drillers had found oil (as they had in the Cline Shale area) in the pre-fracking era.
Key Words: Shale Gas, Shale Oil,the Southern Indus Basin, Petroleum System Modeling (PSM), Retention Capacity, Formation Pressure, Remaining Kerogen
In-situ pyrolysis, which has the advantages of fewer process flows, low cost and high extraction rate, is a newly developed oil shale technology that consists in injecting heat directly into underground oil shale through injection wells.
The outgrowth of shale gas supplies is a blessing to the US economy and a support for potential climate policy.
OMAN is keen to attract international oil companies to evaluate and develop its untapped, yet potentially prodigious, shale gas resources, according to a top official of the Ministry of Oil and Gas.
It is predicted that the recoverable resources of shale gas are about 22 x [10.sup.12] [m.sup.3] (Ministry of Land and Resources of People's Republic of China, 2016), which exceeds the conventional natural gas resources of China.
Shale Support, LLC is a provider of logistical services and frac-sand or proppant products to enhance the recovery rates of hydrocarbon products from natural gas and crude oil wells.
Following identification of massive resources of the Shale gas and oil