Sham Feeding


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Sham Feeding

 

a method proposed by I. P. Pavlov in 1890 for investigating the role of the central nervous system in the regulation of gastric secretion; this method is also useful in studying other problems in neurophysiology, such as the blood glucose level, the state of food depots, and the distribution of water in the body when swallowed food or water do not enter the gastrointestinal tract.

Sham feeding, like sham drinking, consists in the swallowing of food (or liquid) by an animal whose esophagus has been surgically severed and its ends drawn out to the neck and healed into the skin (such a chronic operation is called an esophagotomy). The experiment is usually performed on a dog, to which a gastric fistula is first applied. Within a few minutes after the beginning of sham feeding, gastric juice begins to flow, secretion of which does not cease for 2–3 hours, even when the sham feeding is short. If sham feeding continues for several hours, one may obtain from the dog up to 1 liter of pure (that is, unmixed with food) gastric juice, which is used for therapeutic purposes.

As I. P. Pavlov and his associates demonstrated, when the vagus nerves—which convey central nervous system impulses to the stomach—are bilaterally severed, secretion of gastric juice during sham feeding is absent. This confirms the reflex nature of the first phase of gastric juice secretion, during which approximately one-fourth of the normal quantity of gastric juice (the so-called initiative juice) is secreted.

REFERENCE

Pavlov, I. P. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 5. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.

O. M. BENIUMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
A meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding following colectomy: Should gum chewing be included in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols?
Sham feeding with chewing gum after elective colorectal resectional surgery: A randomized clinical trial.
Gum chewing (GC), a kind of sham feeding alternative to early feeding, which is expected to stimulate the cephalicvagal reflex to increase hormone secretion and then enhance intestinal motility [8], may produce a positive effect on postoperative ileus by reducing postoperative inflammation [9].
Chewing gum acts as sham feeding which, therefore, may promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function through various ways.
However, in the FBR treatment, the goats were deprived of water during feeding and 3.5 L of artificial parotid saliva, a solution resembling parotid saliva (Sunagawa et al., 2008), was intraruminally infused to replenish saliva lost from the esophageal fistula during sham feeding. The intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva was carried out with a bath tub pump and started concurrently with the commencement of feeding.
However, the postulated mechanism of 'sham feeding' with increased intestinal peristaltic activity seen after chewing gum does not appear to markedly 'increase' PONV in the ambulatory surgery setting, at least not in this small cohort.
That's what a randomized study of postoperative ileus and "sham feeding" found.
In the first experimental stage, group A was the control and was subjected to the intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva under sham feeding conditions (SFC) while group B as the treatment maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC).
Previous research has suggested that sham feeding can enhance bowel function by increasing gastric motility and hormone secretion, and one small Japanese study has linked gum chewing to early recovery from postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colectomy (J.
(2010) has found that in sham feeding conditions in which swallowed boluses of dry forage intake and secreted saliva were prevented from entering the rumen by removal via an esophageal fistula, eating rates were remained at high levels even after 40 min of feeding period had elapsed in large-type esophageal-fistulated goats fed dry forage twice daily.
In this study, two experiments under sham feeding conditions were conducted to determine whether or not ruminal distension brought about by feed boluses (a mixture of secreted saliva and consumed feed) entering the rumen is a factor in the marked suppression of feed intake after 40 min of feeding.
In the first experiment, group A was the control and maintained under the normal feeding conditions (NFC) while group B was subjected to the sham feeding conditions (SFC).