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the feeling experienced by a person when he has committed an immoral act or one demeaning to human dignity. The kinds of action that evoke a feeling of shame are determined by social and historical conditions and by evolving ethical norms. Shame is experienced as painful anxiety, dissatisfaction with one’s self, censure of one’s own behavior, and regret over one’s action. A person may feel ashamed over unworthy behavior on the part of others, especially of persons one is close to. Shame is also experienced when one recalls a humiliating act committed in the past. The feeling of shame may be accompanied by discernible somatic symptoms, such as blushing or a lowering of the eyes.