Shammai


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Shammai

(shä`mī), c.50 B.C.–c.A.D. 30, Jewish sage known for his opposition to the liberal teachings of HillelHillel,
fl. c.30 B.C.–A.D. 10, Jewish scholar, regarded as the forebear of the later patriarchs who led the Jews of Palestine until c.A.D. 400. The Jerusalem Talmud calls him the president of the Sanhedrin.
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. He and his school interpreted the Law extremely rigorously, emphasizing deed rather than intent. The conflict between the schools of Shammai and Hillel continued long after their leaders' deaths, with the school of Hillel gaining ascendancy after A.D. 70. However, a number of Shammai's decisions were adopted by all as authoritative.

Bibliography

See L. Ginzberg, On Jewish Law and Lore (1955).


Shammai

(shăm`āī), in 1 Chronicles. 1 Jerahmeelite. 2, 3 Descendants of Caleb.
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"We are very excited for this opportunity," says Shammai Ellman, Founder of PTC Wizard.
Beit Hillel (the house of Hillel) also thought so, as evident in their difference of opinion with Beit Shammai (the house of Shammai) concerning the biblical verse, "to see whether he has put his hand to his neighbor's goods.
But that principle was not alien to the Mosaic system, which developed a Rabbi Hillel as well as a Rabbi Shammai.
In Matthew 19:3, the Pharisees came to Jesus and asked, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any and every reason?" Those following the stricter interpretation of rabbi Shammai, claimed that divorce and remarriage were acceptable only in the case of adultery.
The Talmud relates that "for three years there was an ongoing dispute between the House of Shammai and the House of Hillel," two major schools of halakhic jurisprudence.
Thus we know that Hillel tended to be lenient while Shammai tended to be strict; but this identification does not in and of itself tell us anything about Hillel and Shammai as real people.
Noah's approach here calls to mind two passages from the Talmud--the first, a famous rabbinic debate, between Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai, about whether it would have been better had the world, and humankind, never been created.
This is one of many lessons to be drawn from the Babylonian Talmud's well-known account in which a heavenly voice intervenes in a dispute between the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel by asserting, "The utterance of both are the words of the living God, but the law is in agreement with the rulings of the School of Hillel." The question arises: Since "both are the words of the Living God," why was the School of Hillel entitled to have the law fixed in agreement with its rulings?
It is accepting the risk of being wrong in front of one's teachers and peers--Jews still study Shammai, even though Hillel won most of the big arguments.
The medieval rabbis, even when coming down clearly on a particular issue, tend to record minority opinions; for example, the differing viewpoints of the schools of Hillel and Shammai pervade the Tannaitic literature.
Fishman, Shammai. "Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat: A Legal Theory for Muslim Minorities." Center on Islam, Democracy, and the Future of the Muslim World, Hudson Institute, Series no 1, Paper no.