Shang


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Shang

(shäng) or

Yin,

dynasty of China, which ruled, according to traditional dates, from c.1766 B.C. to c.1122 B.C. or, according to some modern scholars, from c.1523 B.C. to c.1027 B.C. It is the first historic dynasty of China; its legendary founder, T'ang, is said to have defeated the last HsiaHsia
, semilegendary first dynasty of China, which ruled, according to traditional dates, from c.2205 B.C. to c.1766 B.C. or, according to some modern scholars, from c.1994 B.C. to c.1523 B.C.
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 ruler, Chieh. His successors ruled over a city-state in modern Henan prov. and may have controlled other smaller states on the North China Plain. They warred against the Huns and against the ChouChou
, dynasty of China, which ruled from c.1027 B.C. to 256 B.C. The pastoral Chou people migrated from the Wei valley NW of the Huang He c.1027 B.C. and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Chou built their capital near modern Xi'an in 1027 B.C. and moved it to Luoyang in 770 B.C.
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, who finally defeated the last Shang king, Shou. Archaeological remains at one of the capitals, near modern AnyangAnyang
, city (1994 est. pop. 458,400), N Henan prov., China, on the Beijing-Guangzhou RR, in a cotton-growing area. It is an agricultural and trade center with textile mills, coal mines, and a medium-sized iron and steel complex.
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, suggest (along with later records) that the Shang had a complex agricultural civilization of peasants and city-dwelling artisans, with a priestly class, nobles, and a king, who was also high priest. Shang religion was characterized by ancestor worship, sacrifices to nature deities, and divination. Stylized inscriptions on bone and bronze artifacts probably reveal the earliest examples of Chinese writing. Bronze casting under the Shang reached a height of artistic achievement rarely equaled anywhere in the world. There was a highly organized bureaucracy, and the patriarchal Chinese family system seems to have already been developed.

Bibliography

See H. G. Creel, The Birth of China (1954); T. Cheng, Archaeology in China: Vol. II, Shang China (1960); K. C. Chang, Shang Civilization (1980); D. Keightley, Early China (1981) and The Origins of Chinese Civilization (1983).

Shang

 

(also Yin), the name of the first verifiable period in the history of the Chinese people, as well as the name of an early state in China (16th—11th centuries b.c.). The last capital of the Shang state was situated near modern-day Anyang, near the village of Hsiaot’un in the province of Honan. The major branches of the economy were farming and livestock breeding; there was also hunting and fishing. The land was worked primarily with stone and wooden implements. Handicraft production had achieved a rather high level of development, especially the production of bronze vessels, weapons, certain work tools, and pottery. This period also saw the appearance of hieroglyphic writing, the so-called divination inscriptions on the bones of animals and the shells of tortoises.

The data provided by archaeological discoveries and studies of the inscriptions reveal a significant degree of property differentiation and class stratification in Shang society. The oppressed classes consisted of members of communities—the principal agricultural producers—and slaves. The members of communities (chung, chungjen) in actual fact were dependents of the state and thus differed very little from the slaves. The latter consisted largely of prisoners of war. By the 14th century b.c., a state had already formed, headed by a ruler of unlimited authority, the wang. The Shang state waged a long struggle against neighboring tribes (T’ufang, Mafang, Ch’iang). In the 11th century b.c., however, the related Chou tribe, taking advantage of the sharpening class contradictions and internecine war within the Shang state, was able to destroy it.

Scholars are still unable to agree on the character of the social organization of the Shang period. The majority of Chinese scholars (Kuo Mo-je, Wu Tse, and others) believe that a developed slave-holding society already existed in China at this time. Some (Lii Chen-yii, Fan Wen-Ian) even assert that the end of this period saw a transition to a feudal society. There are, however, some researchers (Chao Hsi-yüan) who feel that Shang society represented a transition between clan and class types of organization, and others (Yii Hsing-wu) who see it as the last stage of a primitive society. Soviet scholars likewise have differing opinions. Some see Shang society as a class society, whether of an early slave-holding (L. I. Duman) or a developed slave-holding type (R. V. Its), and others consider it to have been a disintegrating primitive communal system at the stage of a military democracy (T. V. Stepugina) or a society with an emerging class structure (M. V. Kriukov, L.S. Vasil’ev).

L. I. DUMAN

Shang

1. the dynasty ruling in China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries bc
2. of or relating to the pottery produced during the Shang dynasty
References in classic literature ?
These two premises accepted there could be little doubt that Schneider would prove trustworthy in so far as accepting the command of the Cowrie was concerned; after that Kai Shang knew that he could find means to coerce the man into submission to his further wishes.
As Kai Shang and Momulla entered their camp, it was with a realization that they no longer needed Gust.
So that he heard the approach of Kai Shang and Momulla, though he did not, of course, dream that it had any special significance for him.
Chance had it, though, that he glanced out of the doorway of the cook's tent at the very moment that Kai Shang and Momulla approached the entrance to his, and he thought that he noted a stealthiness in their movements that comported poorly with amicable or friendly intentions, and then, just as they two slunk within the interior, Gust caught a glimpse of the long knife which Momulla the Maori was then carrying behind his back.
As surely as though he had heard them plotting, he knew that Kai Shang and Momulla had come to take his life.
But if Gust was afraid of the jungle he was far more afraid of Kai Shang and Momulla.
In addition, OFAC identified the vessel Shang Yuan Bao as blocked property in which the three companies and two Taiwanese nationals have an interest and was involved in the ship-to-ship transfers of fuel to North Korea.
In addition, OFAC identified the vessel Shang Yuan Bao (IMO: 8126070) as blocked property in which Huang Wang Ken, Chen Mei Hsiang, Jui Pang, Jui Cheng, and Jui Zong all have an interest.
For example, Rockwell Land and Shang Properties have similar P/E ratios of 5.4x, but they differ significantly in their capital structure.
According to the trailer that was released online on the official (https://twitter.com/MortalKombat/status/1164160723846516736) Twitter page of the game, the new DLC fighters are Shang Tsung, Nightwolf, Sindel, Joker, Spawn, and Terminator T-800.
SHANGLA -- Residents of Chakesar here blocked the Bisham-Swat road at Karora, demanding power supply from the newly-built 132KV Shang grid station.
[USA], July 22 (ANI): Actor Simu Liu, who will play the lead role in Marvel's very first Asian superhero film 'Shang Chi', quite literally campaigned himself into the cinematic universe.