Shandong

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Shandong

or

Shantung

(both: shän-do͝ong) [east of the (Taishan) mountains], province (2010 pop. 95,793,065), c.59,000 sq mi (152,850 sq km), NE China. JinanJinan
or Tsinan
, city (1994 est. pop. 1,659,900), capital of Shandong prov., E China. It lies 3 mi (4.8 km) S of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is a railroad junction on the network linking Shanghai and Nanjing with Tianjin; it has connections to Qingdao and Yantai.
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 is the capital. The eastern half of the province is a peninsula, situated between the Bohai on the north and the Yellow Sea on the east and south. The mountain chain that forms the Liaodong peninsula in Manchuria continues into east and central Shandong. The western portion of the province, a level area, is part of the delta of the Huang He (Yellow River), which crosses Shandong to empty into the Bohai. Although the soil is very fertile, rainfall is inadequate, and famines used to occur. Much of the land has been reclaimed, however, and half of the province is now under cultivation. Shandong is an important wheat-producing and cotton-producing province; sorghum, millet, corn, soybeans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, rice, fruits, and tobacco are also grown. Livestock raising is an important industry, and pongee silk is produced by wild silkworms fed on oak leaves. Fishing is excellent along the rocky coast and offshore islands. Salt is also produced in the province. Oil, extracted near the mouth of the Huang He (Yellow River), has become a vital component of the provincial economy. Abundant coal and iron reserves are also exploited, and Shandong has deposits of gold, copper, and kaolin. QingdaoQingdao
or Tsingtao
, city (1994 est. pop. 1,584,100), SE Shandong prov., E China, on the Yellow Sea. With an excellent ice-free harbor, it is a major fishing and trade port of China, connected by rail with Yantai and Jinan. It is a special economic development port.
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 and Jinan are leading light- and heavy-industrial centers. Jinan is on the north-south railway system that connects Shanghai and Nanjing with Tianjin; a branch line extends to Qingdao and Yantai. There are many paved roads throughout the province. Strategically located near Manchuria and with excellent harbors, Shandong has often been subjected to foreign encroachment. KiaochowKiaochow
or Jiaozhou
, former German territory, area c.200 sq mi (520 sq km), along the southern coast of Shandong prov., China. Its administrative center was the city of Qingdao. Germany leased Kiaochow in 1898 for 99 years, but in 1914 Japan seized it.
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 (Jiaozhou) was held by Germany until 1914 and by Japan until 1922, and Great Britain leased the territory of Weihaiwei from 1898 to 1930. In recent years many Chinese have migrated from Shandong to Manchuria to escape extreme overcrowding. Shandong is venerated by the Chinese as the birthplace of the ancient philosophers ConfuciusConfucius
, Chinese K'ung Ch'iu or K'ung Fu-tzu, Pinyin Kong Fuzi, c.551–479? B.C., Chinese sage. Positive evidence concerning the life of Confucius is scanty; modern scholars base their accounts largely on the Analects,
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 and MenciusMencius
, Mandarin Meng-tzu, 371?–288? B.C., Chinese Confucian philosopher. The principal source for Mencius' life is his own writings. He was born in the ancient state of Ch'ao, in modern Shandong prov.
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, and as the site of Tai, a sacred peak. Shandong Univ. is in Jinan.

Shandong

, Shantung
a province of NE China, on the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Chihli: part of the earliest organized state of China (1520--1030 bc); consists chiefly of the fertile plain of the lower Yellow River, with mountains over 1500 m (5000 ft.) high in the centre. Capital: Jinan. Pop.: 91 250 000 (2003 est.). Area: 153 300 sq. km (59 189 sq. miles)
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